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In some of our early lessons, we looked at the conjugation of thematic verbs – classes 1, 4, 6 and 10. Later on, in lessons 16 and 17 we looked the conjugation of verbs of root class 2. Then, in lesson 19, we looked at root classes 5 and 8 and in lesson 20, at root classes 7 and 9.
We said that in class 2, the endings are added directly to the root and the radical vowel is gunated in the strong forms.
In class 5, -no -नो is added to the root to make the strong stem and -nu -नु is added to the root to make the weak stem and in class 8, -o -ओ and -u -उ are added to make the strong and weak stems respectively. Thus the class 5 root √su √सु (“press out”) forms the strong stem suno सुनो and weak stem sunu सुनु and class 8 root √tan √तन् (“stretch”) forms strong stem tano तनो and weak stem tanu तनु.
We also said that in class 9, the class signs -nā -ना is added to the root to make the strong stem and -nī -नी is added to the root to make the weak stem. So root √krī √क्री (“buy”) forms the strong stem krīṇā- क्रीणा- and the weak stem krīṇī- क्रीणी-.
And, in class 7, the class sign is a nasal preceding the last consonant. In the weak forms it is a nasal adapted to the last consonant, and in strong forms it is expanded to na न. So, in weak forms, the root takes the infix ñ ञ् before j ज्, n न् before dh ध् etc. So the weak stem of √yuj √युज् (“join”) is yuñj युञ्ज् and the strong stem is yunaj युनज्. The weak stem of √rudh √रुध् (“obstruct”) is rundh रुन्ध् and the strong stem is ruṇadh रुणध्.
We noted that in verbs of root classes 2, 3 and 7, the endings come directly in contact with the final consonants of the roots (of roots ending in consonants) and therefore (the sometimes complicated) consonant sandhis apply.
In this lesson we will look at the last class of verbs – verbs of root class 3.
Class 3 roots form their stems by reduplicating the roots. That is, they add a (sometimes modified) part of the root to the beginning of the root. Reduplication must have stared as a process of strengthening the root by doubling the entire root.
The general principle of reduplication is the prefixing to the root a part of itself – the initial consonant and the vowel, the starting vowel and maybe the following consonant etc.
Some rules of reduplication are:
The consonant of reduplication is the normally the first consonant of the root;
A long radical vowel may be shortened – bibhī बिभी from root √bhī √भी (“fear”); dadā ददा from √dā √दा (“give”)
The reduplicated part uses a non-aspirate instead of the corresponding aspirate – dadhā दधा from √dhā √धा (“put”); bibhr̥ बिभृ from √bhr̥ √भृ (“bear”)
A palatal is substituted for a guttural or h ह् – juhu जुहु for √hu √हु (“sacrifice”); jahā जहा for √hā √हा (“leave”)
As we have seen in the case of √bhr̥ √भृ above, r̥ ऋ never appears in reduplication. It is replaced by i इ
[Note: some verbs of class 1 roots like √pā √पा, √sthā √स्था and √ghrā √घ्रा which form verb stems piba पिब, tiṣṭha तिष्ठ and jighra जिघ्र respectively, which are currently in class 1, would have been earlier days in class 3 and may be transfers to class 1 from class 3.]
[Reduplication is quite common in Hindi, where not only verbs but also nouns, adjectives etc. are reduplicated. For example: khāte khāte mat bolo खाते खाते मत बोलो (“Do not speak while eating”) or vah ro rokar bolā वह रो रोकर बोला (“He spoke crying”); pānī ṭhaṇḍā ṭhaṇḍā hai पानी ठण्डा ठण्डा है (“The water is cold”) etc.
Sometime words are reduplicated as echo words: paisā vaisā पैसा वैसा etc.
Even in English, reduplication is commonly used. For example: “To jaw-jaw is always better than to war-war.”(Winston Churchill, remarks at a White House luncheon, Washington, D.C., June 16, 1954); “He pooh-poohed the idea”;
Some are echo words: dilly-dally; wishy-washy etc.]
Note 1: Like any athematic verb, the stems have a double form. A strong form with a gunated root vowel and a weak form without the gunation. For example, for √hu √हु it is juho जुहो and juhu जुहु; for √bhī √भी it is bibhe बिभे and bibhī बिभी.
Note 2: The verbs of class 3 lose the “n” in the 3rd plural ending in the active indicative and imperative, as well as the middle indicative. Also, the the imperfect plural active ending is “us” instead of “an” and before this “us” the final radical vowel gets gunated.
juhoti juhutaḥ juhvati juhute juhvāte juhvate
juhoṣi juhuthaḥ juhutha juhuṣe juhvāthe juhudhve
juhomi juhuvaḥ juhumaḥ juhve juhuvahe juhumahe
Note the 3rd person plural ending drops the “n”. So the form is juhu + ati (not anti as in other cases) –> juhvati
ajuhot ajuhutām ajuhavuḥ ajuhuta ajuhvātām ajuhvata
ajuhoḥ ajuhutam ajuhuta ajuhuthāḥ ajuhvāthām ajuhudhvam
ajuhavam ajuhuva ajuhuma ajuhvi ajuhuvahi ajuhumahi
Note the 3rd person plural ending in “us” and the gunation of the final radical vowel to “juho”: ajuho + us –> ajuhavuḥ
juhuyāt juhuyātām juhuyuḥ juhvīta juhvīyātām juhvīran
juhuyāḥ juhuyātam juhuyāta juhvīthāḥ juhvīyāthām juhvīdhvam
juhuyām juhuyāva juhuyāma juhvīya juhvīvahi juhvīmahi
juhotu juhutām juhvatu juhutām juhvātām juhvatām
juhudhi juhutam juhuta juhuṣva juhvāthām juhudhvam
juhavāni juhavāva juhavāma juhavai juhavāvahai juhavāmahai
Note the 3rd person plural ending drops the “n”. So the form is juhu + atu (not antu as in other cases) –> juhvatu
Since the participle closely follows the pattern of the 3rd person plural, the active participle is formed by adding “at” to the weak stem and not “ant” as in the other classes. The middle participle is formed by adding āna to the weak stem.
The active participle is juhvat जुह्वत्. Unlike the other classes, the active participle does not have the “n”. So the declension has only one form, not two – strong and weak forms.
The feminine active participle is is जुह्वती.
The middle participle is regular and is juhvāna जुह्वान
Let us also look at the indicative of √bhr̥ √भृ
bibharti bibhr̥taḥ bibhrati bibhr̥te bibhrāte bibhrate
bibharṣi bibhr̥thaḥ bibhr̥tha bibhr̥ṣe bibhrāte bibhr̥dhve
bibharmi bibhr̥vaḥ bibhr̥maḥ bibhr̥e bibhr̥vahe bibhr̥mahe
Roots √dā √दा and √dhā √धा
The roots √dā √दा and √dhā √धा which are the commonest roots of this class, lose their radical vowel completely in the weak forms, where it is shortened to dad दद् and dadh दध्.
In the second singular imperative active, they form “dehi” and dhehi”
When combining with “t”, “th” and “s” of endings, the ending “d” and “dh” of “dad” and “dadh” change to “t”
When combining with “t”, “th”, “dh” and “s”, the aspiration “dh” of “dadh” is thrown back on to the first syllable to become “dh”. [This is similar to what we saw in Lesson 6 in consonant sandhis (section 6.3) that √duh + su √दुह् + सु –> dhukṣu धुक्षु = dhukṣu. The beginning “d” becomes “dh”. We also saw a similar thing in lesson 16.
Note: This law where the the aspiration is thrown back is called Grasmann’s Law. This phenomenon obtains in Greek also.]
Let us look at the conjugation of √dhā √धा (“put”)
dadhāti dhattaḥ dadhati dhatte dadhāte dadhate
dadhāsi dhatthaḥ dhattha dhatse dadhāthe dhaddhve
dadhāmi dadhvaḥ dadhmaḥ dadhe dadhvahe dadhmahe
adadhāt adhattām adadhuḥ adhatta adadhātām adadhata
adadhāḥ adhattam adhatta adhatthāḥ adadhāthām adhaddhvam
adadhām adadhva adadhma adadhi adadhvahi adadhmahi
dadhyāt dadhyātām dadhyuḥ dadhīta dadhīyātām dadhīran
dadhyāḥ dadhyātam dadhyāta dadhīthāḥ dadhīyāthām dadhīdhvam
dadhyām dadhyāva dadhyāma dadhīya dadhīvahi dadhīmahi
dadhātu dhattām dadhatu dhattām dadhātām dadhatām
dhehi dhattam dhatta dhatsva dadhāthām dhaddhvam
dadhāni dadhāva dadhāma dadhai dadhāvahai dadhāmahai
The participles are dadhat and dadhāna
Please study the first few verses (I have reached up to verse 12) of the नळोपाख्यानम् naḷopākhyānam – The story of Nala – that I have analysed on a first level and uploaded here. This will help you understand how to analyse Sanskrit verses.
This is the end of lesson 21. In this lesson we looked at the conjugation of verbs of root class 3.