Lesson 8

aiunWelcome to Lesson 8.

A short YouTube version is available here. [Expand to the full article to be able to click on the link]

In this lesson, as we did in Lesson 4, we will look at a story from the Hitopadeśa and see how what we studied so far has been applied in actual sentence construction. Like in lesson 4, there will be many constructs that we have not touched upon so far. We will mention these in passing and take up detailed analysis of these in later lessons. Don’t worry too much if you do not understand everything in detail now.

The story below, “The Birds And The Monkeys” appears also in the Pañcatantra.

The Birds And The Monkeys – A story from the Hitopadeśa

अस्ति नर्मदातीरे पर्वतोपत्यकायां विशालः शाल्मलीतरुः । तत्र निर्मितनीडक्रोडे पक्षिणः सुखेन वर्षास्वपि निवसन्ति । अथ नीलपटैरिव जलधरपटलैरावृते नभस्तले धारासारैर्महती वृष्टिर्बभूव  । ततो वानरांस्तरुतलेऽवस्थिताञ्छीतार्तान्कम्पमानानवलोक्य पक्षिभिरुक्तम् । भो भो वानराः । श्रूयताम् ।अस्माभिर्निर्मिता नीडाश्चञ्चुमात्राहृतैस्तृणैः । हस्तपादादिसंयुक्ता यूयं किमवसीदथ । तच्छ्रुत्वा वानरैर्जातामर्षैरालोचितं । अहो । निर्वातनीडगर्भावस्थिताः सुखिनः पक्षिणोऽस्मान्निन्दन्ति ।  तद्भवतु | तावद्वृष्टेरुपशमः | अनन्तरं शान्ते पानीयवर्षे तैर्वानरैर्वृक्षमारुह्य सर्वे नीडा भग्नाः । तेषां पक्षिणामन्डनि चाधः पतितानि ।  अतोऽहम् ब्रवीमि ।

  • विद्वानेवोपदेष्टव्यो नाविद्वांस्तु कदा चन ।
  • वानरानुपदिश्याज्ञान्स्थानभ्रंशं ययुः खगाः ।

asti narmadātīre parvatopatyakāyāṃ viśālaḥ śālmalītaruḥ | tatra nirmitanīḍakroḍe pakṣiṇaḥ sukhena varṣāsvapi nivasanti | atha nīlapaṭairiva jaladharapaṭalairāvr̥te nabhastale dhārāsārairmahatī vr̥ṣṭirbabhūva  | tato vānarāṃstarutale’vasthitāñchītārtānkampamānānavalokya pakṣibhiruktam |  bho bho vānarāḥ | śrūyatām | asmābhirnirmitā nīḍāścañcumātrāhr̥taistr̥ṇaiḥ | hastapādādisaṃyuktā yūyaṃ kimavasīdatha |  tacchrutvā vānarairjātāmarṣairālocitaṃ |  aho | nirvātanīḍagarbhāvasthitāḥ sukhinaḥ pakṣiṇo’smānnindanti |  tadbhavatu | tāvadvr̥ṣṭerupaśamaḥ | anantaraṃ śānte pānīyavarṣe tairvānarairvr̥kṣamāruhya sarve nīḍā bhagnāḥ |  teṣāṃ pakṣiṇāmanḍani cādhaḥ patitāni |  ato’ham bravīmi |

  • vidvānevopadeṣṭavyo nāvidvāṃstu kadā cana |
  • vānarānupadiśyājñānsthānabhraṃśaṃ yayuḥ khagāḥ |

Analysis

asti narmadātīre parvatopatyakāyāṃ viśālaḥ śālmalītaruḥ

  • asti – pres. ind. active, (laṭ parasmai padam) 3rd person, singular of class 2 √as (to be) – “is”
  • narmadātīre –  loc. sing. neu. of narmadā (f)+tīra (n) (bank of the Narmada) – “on the banks of the Narmada river”
    • narmadā is from narman + da (“pleasure giver”)
    • tīra is from class 1 root √tr̥  (to cross); √tr̥ –> tīr + a –> tīra
  • parvatopatyakāyām – loc. sing. fem. of parvatopatyakā (parvata (m) + upatyakā (f)) (foothills of mountain) – “on the foothills of a mountain”
    • parvata is from parvan (“knot”). parvata literally means “knotty”
    • upatyakā (from upa + tya + ka) means foothills
  • viśālaḥ – nom. sing. masc. of adjective viśāla (broad) – “broad”
    • from vi + √śri
  • śālmalītaruḥ – nom. sing. masc. of śālmalī (f) +taru (m) (Shalmali tree) – “silk cotton tree”

Meaning: On the banks of the Narmada, on the foothills of a mountain, there is a big silk cotton tree.

tatra nirmita nīḍakroḍe pakṣiṇaḥ sukhena varṣāsvapi nivasanti

  • tatra – indeclinable adverb – “there”
  • nirmitanīḍakroḍe –  loc. sing. masc. of nirmita (adj – constructed) + nīḍa (m)+kroḍa (m) (“interior of made nest”) – ‘inside the constructed nest”
    • nirmita from nis + mita
    • mita is past passive participle of class 3 root √mā
    • nīḍa means nest
    • kroḍa means interior
  • pakṣiṇaḥ – nom. plu. masc. of pakṣin (“winged”) – “birds”
    • pakṣin meaning possessor of pakṣa (wing)
  • sukhena – instr. sing. masc. of sukha, used adverbially – “pleasantly, happily”
    • from adj sukha (“happy”)
  • varṣāsu – loc. pl. fem. of varṣā (“rainy season”) – “many rains, many years”
  • api – indeclinable “even”
  • nivasanti – pres. indic. active 3rd person plural of ni+class 1 root √vas (“dwell”) – “dwell”

Meaning: There, inside nests they had constructed, some birds were living happily for many years.

atha nīlapaṭairiva jaladharapaṭalairāvr̥te nabhastale dhārāsārairmahatī vr̥ṣṭirbabhūva

  • atha – indeclinable adverb – “then”
  • nīlapaṭaiḥ – instr. pl. masc. of nīla (adj) +paṭa (m) (“dark blue garment”) – “like a dark blue garment”
  • iva – indecl. particle – “like”
  • jaladharapaṭalaiḥ – instr. pl. neu. of jaladhara (m)+paṭala (n)(“cloud cover”) – “with cloud cover”
    • jaladhara = “cloud” = jala (n) + dhara (adj) (“water holder”)
    • dhara is from class 1 root √dhr̥ – hold
    • paṭala means “cover, veil”
  • āvr̥te – loc. sing. neu. of adj. āvr̥ta (“covered”) – “covered”
    • ā + past passive participle of class 5 root √vr̥ (“cover”)
  • nabhastale – loc. sing. neu. of nabhas (n)+tala (n) (“sky surface”) – “in the sky”
  • dhārāsāraiḥ – instr. pl. masc. of dhārā (f)+āsāra (m) (“heavy pouring stream”) – “with heavily pouring rain”
    • dhārā is from class 1 root √dhav (“run”) meaning stream
    • āsāra is from ā + class 3 root √sr̥ (“flow”) – “pouring rain”
  • mahatī – nom. sing. fem. of adj. mahatī – “great”
  • vr̥ṣṭiḥ – nom. sing. fem. of vr̥ṣṭi (“rain”) – “rain”
  • babhūva – perfect tense indicative active (liṭ  लिट् parasmai padam) 3rd person sing. of class 1 root √bhū  – “happenned”
    • We will learn about the perfect tense in a later lesson

Meaning: One day, thick clouds covered the sky like a dark garment and it rained heavily.

tato vānarāṃstarutale’vasthitāñchītārtānkampamānānavalokya pakṣibhiruktam

  • tataḥ – indeclinable adverb – “then”
  • vānarān – acc. pl. masc. of vānara (“ape, monkey”) – “monkey”
  • tarutale – loc. sing. neu of taru+tala (“tree surface’) – “on the tree”
    • Note the Sandhi between vānarān and tarutale – vānarāṃstarutale .
    • Before palatal, lingual and dental mutes,  a sibilant of each of these classes is inserted after n and n becomes anusvāra. For example, devān ca  देवान् च becomes devāṃś ca  देवांश् च etc.
  • avasthitān – acc. pl. masc. adj. avasthita (“standing, being”) – “sitting”
    • ava + pas passive participle of class 1 root √sthā (“stand”)
  • śītārtān –  acc. pl. masc. adj. śīta (adj) +ārta (adj) (“distressed with cold”) – “distressed with cold”
    • śīta is past passive participle of class 4(?) root √śyā meaning “coagulate”
    • ārta is ā + past passive participle of class 6 root √r̥ (“send”) – “sent, distressed”
    • Note the sandhi here: avasthitān + śītārtān –> avasthitāñchītārtān
  • kampamānān –  acc. pl. masc. adj. kampamāna (“trembling”) – “shivering”
    • kampamāna is the present middle participle of class 1 root √kamp (“tremble”)
    • we will learn about present participles (active and passive) in later lessons
  • avalokya – indeclinable (continuative – lyabanta) – “having seen”
    • ava + class 1 root √lok (“look”)
    • Note that the continuative is used identically in active and passive constructions
  • pakṣibhiḥ – instr. pl.  masc. of pakṣin  – “by birds”
  • uktam – nom. sing. neu. of ukta (“said”) used as impersonal passive; “said”
    • ukta is the passive past participle of  class 3 root √vac (“speak”)
    • This is a common construction in Sanskrit. The use of a passive participle (with the instrumental of the agent) instead of an active verb.

Meaning: Then, seeing some monkeys sitting on the tree cold and shivering, the birds told them.

bho bho vānarāḥ

  • bhoḥ – indeclinable (exclamation of address) – “O!, Ho! Hello! etc.”
  • bhoḥ – The exclamation is very often repeated.
    • Note the exceptional Sandhi here. The expression bhoḥ (bhos) loses its final “s” (or visarga) before all voiced sounds (vowels, diphthongs and voiced consonants) (instead of becoming “r”)
  • vānarāḥ – vocative. pl. masc. of vānara (“ape, monkey”) – “O monkeys”

Meaning: O, monkeys!

śrūyatām

  • śrūyatām – present passive imperative 3rd person singular of classs 5 root √śru – “may it be heard”
    • we will learn imperatives in a later lesson
    • we will learn the passive voice in a later lesson

Meaning: Listen.

asmābhirnirmitā nīḍāścañcumātrāhr̥taistr̥ṇaiḥ 

  • asmābhiḥ – instr. pl. of asmad – “by us”
  • nirmitāḥ – nom. pl. masc. of adj nirmita (constructed) – “contructed”
  • nīḍāḥ – nom. pl. masc. of nīḍa (“nest’) – “nests”
  • cañcumātrāhr̥taiḥ – instr. pl. neu. of cañcu (f) +mātrā (f) + āhr̥ta (adj) (“brought only by  beaks”)- “brought here using only beaks”
    • mātrā is from class 3 root √mā (“measure”) – “only, merely”
    • āhr̥ta is ā+ past passive pasrticiple of class 1 root √hr̥
  • tr̥ṇaiḥ – instr. pl. neu. of tr̥ṇa (“grass”) – “grass”

Meaning: (We are safe in ) nests constructed by us with grass brought only using our beaks.

hastapādādisaṃyuktā yūyaṃ kimavasīdatha

  • hastapādādisaṃyuktāḥ – nom. sing. pl. of masc. adj hasta (m)+pāda (m)+ādi (m)+saṃyukta (adj) – “endowed with hands, feet etc.”
    • hasta means hand
    • pāda (alternative form of pad) means foot
    • ādi means “beginning” ;used to denote that the previous word is the head of a list; equivalent to “et cetera”
    • sam + yukta past passive participle of class 7 root √yuj (“yoke”) – “endowed with”
  • yūyam – nom. sing. pl. of yuṣmad “you”
  • kim – nom. sing. neu of pronoun kim (“what”) – “why”
  • avasīdatha – pres. ind. active (laṭ parasmai padam) 2nd person plural of ava + class 1 root √sad (“sit”) – “sink down, be in distress”

Meaning: (Then,) why are you, who have hands and feet, suffering?

 tacchrutvā vānarairjātāmarṣairālocitaṃ

  • tat – acc. sing. neu tad – “that”
  • śrutvā – indeclinable (continuative – ktvānta) – “having heard”
    •  class 5 root √śru – “hear”
    • note the sandhi
  • vānaraiḥ – instr. pl. masc. of vānara (“ape, monkey”) – “by the monkeys”
  • jātāmarṣaiḥ – instr. pl. masc. of adj. jāta (adj)+amarṣa (m) – “with anger born”
    • jāta is past passive participle of class 4 root √jan (“be born”)
    • amarṣa = a-marṣa (“without patience”)
      • marṣa is from class 4 root √mr̥ṣ (“to endure”)
    • Note: See here, as an example, how an adjective takes the gender, number and case of the noun it qualifies.
  • ālocitam – nom. sing. neu. of ā + locita – “thought”
    • past passive participle of (causative of?) √loc “consider”

Meaning: Hearing this, the monkeys became angry and thought.

aho

  • aho – indeclinable exclamation (“Ho”)

Meaning: Ho!

nirvātanīḍagarbhāvasthitāḥ sukhinaḥ pakṣiṇo’smānnindanti

  • nirvātanīḍagarbhāvasthitāḥ – nom. pl. masc. of nir-vāta(adj) +nīḍa (m) garbha (m) avasthita (adj) – “abiding inside the sheltered nests”
    • nir-vāta = nis + vāta (“without wind, sheltered”); vāta is past passive participle of class 2 root √vā (“blow”)
    • garbha means interior, inside
    • ava + past passive participle of class 1 root √sthā – “abiding”
  • sukhinaḥ – nom. pl. masc. adj. sukhin – “happy”
  • pakṣiṇaḥ – nom. pl. masc. pakṣin – “birds”
    • Note: pakṣin is an example of an adjective (“with wings”) used as a noun to mean bird.
  • asmān – acc. pl. of asmad – “us”
  • nindanti – present indicative active 3rd person plural of class 1 root √nind (“revile”) – “revile”

Meaning: The birds are making fun of us sitting inside their cosy nests.

 tadbhavatu

  • tat – acc. sing. neu tad – “that”
  • bhavatu – present imperative active 3rd person singular of class 1 root √bhū – “let it be”
    • we will look at imperatives in later lessons

Meaning: OK, let it be so.

 tāvadvr̥ṣṭerupaśamaḥ

  • tāvat – nom. sing. neu. of pronomial adj. tāvant used adverbially – – “now, then, soon”
  • vr̥ṣṭeḥ –  gen. sing. fem. of vr̥ṣṭi (“rain”) – “of the rain”
  • upaśamaḥ – nom. sing. masc. of upaśama (“stopping”) – “stopping”
    • from upa + class 4 root √śam

Meaning: Soon, the rain will stop (and then we will see).

anantaraṃ śānte pānīyavarṣe tairvānarairvr̥kṣamāruhya sarve nīḍā bhagnāḥ

  • anantaram – adverb “very soon, immediately”
  • śānte – loc.singular masc. of śānta (“calm”) – “calm”
  • pānīyavarṣe – loc. sing. masc of pānīya (n) + varṣa (n) – “downpour of water, rain”
    • pānīya is gerundive of class 1 root √pā (“drink”) – “to be drunk”, “water”
      • we will learn about gerundives in a later lesson
    • varṣa is from class 1 root √vr̥ṣ (“rain”) – “downpour”
    • Note the usage “śānte pānīyavarṣe”. This usage is called locative absolute. A past participle is used in the locative case with a noun. It means “when the <noun> <past participled>”! Here it means when the downpour of rain stopped.
      • We will learn about absolute constructions in later lessons
  • taiḥ – instr. pl. masc. of pronoun tad – “by those”
  • vānaraiḥ – instr. pl. masc. of vānara (“monkey”) – “by monkeys”
  • vr̥kṣam – acc. sing. masc. of vr̥kṣa (“tree”) – tree
    • vr̥kṣa is from class 6 root √vraśc (“cut”) ??
  • āruhya – indeclinable (continuative – lyabanta) of ā + class 1 root √ruh (“climb”) – having climbed
  • sarve – nom. pl. masc. of pronoun sarva “all” – “all”
  • nīḍāḥ – nom. pl. masc. of  nīḍa (“nest”) – “nests”
  • bhagnāḥ – nom. pl. masc. of bhagna – “broken”
    • bhagna is the past passive participle of class 7 root √bhañj (“break”)

Meaning: Very soon, when the rains stopped, the monkeys climbed the tree and destroyed all the nests.

 teṣāṃ pakṣiṇāmanḍani cādhaḥ patitāni

  • teṣām – gen. pl. masc. of pronoun tad – “of those”
  • pakṣiṇām – gen. pl. masc. of pakṣiṇ – “of birds”
  • anḍani – nom. pl. neu of anḍa (“egg”) – eggs
  • ca – indeclinable conjunction “and”
  • adhaḥ – indeclinable adverb “below, down”
  • patitāni –  nom. pl. neu of patita (“fallen”)
    • patita is past passive participle of class 1 root √pat (“fall”)

Meaning: The eggs of the birds also fell down (and broke).

ato’ham bravīmi

  • ataḥ – indeclinable (adverb) – “therefore”
  • aham – nom. sing. of pronoun asmad – “I”
  • bravīmi – pres.ind. active (laṭ parasmai padam) 1st  person sing of class 2 root √brū  – “speak”. “say”

Meaning: Therefore I say,

vidvānevopadeṣṭavyo nāvidvāṃstu kadā cana

  • vidvān – nom. sing. masc. of adj vidvāṃs (vidvas) – “wise”
    • vidvāṃs is the perfect active participle of class 2 root √vid (“know”)
      • we will learn about perfect participles in a later lesson
  • eva – indeclinable (adverb) – “even, only”
  • upadeṣṭavyaḥ – nom. sing. masc. of adj upadeṣṭavya – “to be advised, advisable”
    • upa+deṣṭavya = gerundive of upa + class 6 root √diś (“point”)
    • We will learn about gerundives in a later lesson
  • na – indeclinable “not” – see kada
  • avidvān – a-vidvān – “un-wise”
  • tu – indeclinable particle “indeed”
    • note the sandhi
  • kadā – see cana
  • cana – na kadā cana means “never”

Meaning: Only the wise should be advised, never indeed the foolish.

vānarānupadiśyājñānsthānabhraṃśaṃ yayuḥ khagāḥ

  • vānarān – acc. pl. masc. of vānara (“monkey”) – “monkeys”
  • upadiśya – indeclinable (continuative – lyabanta) – “having advised”
    • upa + class 6 root √diś (“point”)
  • ajñān –  acc. pl. masc. of a-jña (“not-knowing, unwise, foolish”)
    • jña is from class 9 root √jñā (“know”)
  • sthānabhraṃśam – acc. sing. masc. of sthāna (n) + bhraṃśa (m) – “loss of abode”
    • sthāna from class 1 root √sthā (“stand”)
    • bhraṃśa from class 1 root √bhraṃś (“fall”)
  • yayuḥ –  perfect tense indicative active (liṭ  लिट् parasmai padam) 3rd person pl. of class 2 root √yā (“go”)   – “went”
  • khagāḥ – nom. pl. masc. khaga (“bird”) – birds
    • khaga is kha-ga (“sky going”)
      • kha (“hole, void, sky”) is from class 1 root √khan (“dig”)
      • ga (“going”) suffix from class 3 root √gā (“go”)

Meaning: (Like the) birds who advised the foolish (monkeys) and hence had to lose their dwellings.

Meaning of the full story

On the banks of the Narmada, on the foothills of a mountain, there was a big silk cotton tree. There, inside nests they had constructed, some birds were living happily for many years. One day, thick clouds covered the sky like a dark garment and it rained heavily. Then, seeing some monkeys sitting on the tree cold and shivering, the birds told them. O, monkeys. Listen. (We are safe in ) nests constructed by us with grass brought only using our beaks.  (Then,) why are you, who have hands and feet, suffering?  Hearing this, the monkeys became angry and thought. Ho! The birds are making fun of us sitting inside their cosy nests. OK, let it be so. Soon, the rain will stop (and then we will see). Very soon, when the rains stopped, the monkeys climbed the tree and destroyed all the nests. The eggs of the birds fell down (and broke). 

Therefore I say,

  • Only the wise should be advised, never indeed the foolish.
  • (Like the) birds who advised the foolish (monkeys) and hence had to lose their dwellings.

Moral of the story: You should advise only the wise, never the foolish.

Advertisements

4 thoughts on “Lesson 8

  1. I must say it was hard to find your site in search
    results. You write interesting articles but you should rank your blog higher in search engines.
    If you don’t know how to do it search on youtube:
    how to rank a website Marcel’s way

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s