Lesson 22 – A story from the Hitopadeśa

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In the previous lesson, Lesson 21, we looked at the conjugation of athematic verbs of class 3. Class 3 roots form their stems by reduplicating the roots. That is, they add a (sometimes modified) part of the root to the beginning of the root. Reduplication must have stared as a process of strengthening the root by doubling the entire root.

In this lesson, Lesson 22, we will take another story from the Hitopadeśa and analyse it.

The story below, “The hermit, and the mouse that was changed to a tiger”, book iv, fable 6, appears also in the Pañcatantra.

अस्ति गौतमारण्ये महातपा नाम मुनिः । तेनाश्रमसंनिधाने मूषिकशावकः काकमुखाद्भ्रष्टो दृष्टः । ततो दयालुना तेन मुनिना नीवारकणैः स संवर्धितः । तं च मूषिकं खादितुमनुधावन्बिडालो मुनिना दृष्टः । पश्चात्तपःप्रभावात्तेन मुनिना मूषिको बलिष्ठो बिडालः कृतः । स बिडालः कुक्कुराद्बिभेति । ततोऽसौ कुक्कुरः कृतः । कुक्कुरस्य व्याघ्रान्महद्भयम् । तदनन्तरं स व्याघ्रः कृतः । अथ व्याघ्रमपि तं मूषिकनिर्विशेषं पश्यति मुनिः । अतः सर्वे तत्रस्था जनास्तं व्याघ्रं दृष्ट्वा वदन्ति । अनेन मुनिना मूषिकोऽयं व्याघ्रतां नीतः । एतच्छ्रुत्वा स व्याघ्रः सव्यथोऽचिन्तयत् । यावदनेन मुनिना जीवितव्यं तावदिदं मम स्वरूपाख्यानमकीर्तिकरं न पलायिष्यते । इति समालोच्य मुनिं हन्तुं समुद्यतः । ततो मुनिना तस्य चिकीर्षितं ज्ञात्वा पुनर्मूषिको भवेत्युक्त्वा मूषिक एव कृतः । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि ।

नीचः श्लाघ्यपदं प्राप्य स्वामिनं लोप्तुमिच्छति ।

मूषिको व्याघ्रतां प्राप्य मुनिं हन्तुं गतो यथा ।।

asti gautamāraṇye mahātapā nāma muniḥ | tenāśramasaṃnidhāne mūṣikaśāvakaḥ kākamukhādbhraṣṭo dr̥ṣṭaḥ | tato dayālunā tena muninā nīvārakaṇaiḥ sa saṃvardhitaḥ | taṃ ca mūṣikaṃ khāditumanudhāvanbiḍālo muninā dr̥ṣṭaḥ | paścāttapaḥprabhāvāttena muninā mūṣiko baliṣṭho biḍālaḥ kr̥taḥ | sa biḍālaḥ kukkurādbibheti | tato’sau kukkuraḥ kr̥taḥ | kukkurasya vyāghrānmahadbhayam | tadanantaraṃ sa vyāghraḥ kr̥taḥ | atha vyāghramapi taṃ mūṣikanirviśeṣaṃ paśyati muniḥ | ataḥ sarve tatrasthā janāstaṃ vyāghraṃ dr̥ṣṭvā vadanti | anena muninā mūṣiko’yaṃ vyāghratāṃ nītaḥ | etacchrutvā sa vyāghraḥ savyatho’cintayat | yāvadanena muninā jīvitavyaṃ tāvadidaṃ mama svarūpākhyānamakīrtikaraṃ na palāyiṣyate | iti samālocya muniṃ hantuṃ samudyataḥ | tato muninā tasya cikīrṣitaṃ jñātvā punarmūṣiko bhavetyuktvā mūṣika eva kr̥taḥ | ato’haṃ bravīmi |

nīcaḥ ślāghyapadaṃ prāpya svāminaṃ loptumicchati |

mūṣiko vyāghratāṃ prāpya muniṃ hantuṃ gato yathā ||

Analysis

[Note: words explained before in the previous stories will not be explained again

  • asti
  • gautamāraṇye
  • mahātapāḥ – nominative singular of masculine adjective mahātapas (“practicing great austerity”) – Name of a sage
    • mahant (“great”) + tapas (n) (“penance”)–> mahātapas
      • mahant is present active participle of class 1 root √mah (“be great”)
        • mahant in combination becomes mahā
      • tapas (n) is from class 1 root √tap (“heat”)
  • nāma
  • muniḥ – nominative singular of masculine muni (“hermit”) (one who has taken a vow of silence – mauna)
  • tena
  • āśramasaṃnidhāne – locative singular of neuter āśramasaṃnidhāna (“near his hermitage”)
    • āśrama (m) (“hermitage”) + saṃnidhāna (n) (“presence”)
      • āśrama is from ā + class 4 root √śram (“be weary”)
      • saṃnidhāna is from sam + ni + class 3 root √dhā (“put”)
  • mūṣikaśāvakaḥ – nominative singular of masculine mūṣikaśāvaka (“mouseling”)
    • mūṣika (m) (“mouse, rat”) + śāvaka (m) (“young of an animal”)
      • mūṣika is from class class 9 root √muṣ (“steal, rob”)
      • śāvaka is from class 1 (?) root √śū (“swell”)
  • kākamukhāt – ablative singular of neuter kākamukha (“crow’s mouth”) – from a crow’s mouth
    • kāka (m) (“crow”) +mukha (m) (“mouth”)
  • bhraṣṭaḥ – nominative singular of masculine bhraṣṭa (“fallen”)
    • past passive participle of class 1 root √bhraṃś or √bhraś (“fall”)
  • dr̥ṣṭaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adjective dr̥ṣṭa (“seen”)
    • past passive participle of class 4 root √dr̥ś
  • tataḥ – indeclinable adverb (‘then”)
  • dayālunā – instrumental singular of masculine adjective dayālu (“compassionate”)
    • dayālu is from class 1 root √day (“share”)
  • tena
  • muninā – instrumental singular of masculine muni (“hermit”) – by the hermit
  • nīvārakaṇaiḥ – instrumental plural of masculine nīvārakaṇa (“bits of wild rice”) – with small grains of wild rice
    • nīvāra (m) (“wild rice”) + kaṇa (m) (“small pieces, grains”)
  • saḥ
  • saṃvardhitaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adjective saṃvardhita (“grown, brought up”)
    • saṃvardhita is sam + past passive participle of causative of class 1 root √vr̥dh (“grow”)
      • we will learn about causatives in a later lesson
  • tam
  • ca
  • mūṣikam – accusative singular of masculine mūṣika (“mouse”) – mouse
  • khāditum – indeclinable infinitive – to eat
    • infinitive of class 1 root √khād (“chew, eat”)
  • anudhāvan – nominative singular of masculine adjective anudhāvant (“running after”)
    • anu + present active participle of class 1 root √dhāv (“run”)
  • biḍālaḥ – nominative singular of masculine of biḍāla (“cat”)
  • muninā
  • dr̥ṣṭaḥ
  • paścāt – indeclinable adverb (“thereafter”)
  • tapaḥprabhāvāt – ablative singular of masculine tapaḥprabhāva (“strength of penance”) – from the strength of his penance
    • tapas (n) (“austerity”) + prabhāva (m) (“superior might”)
      • prabhāva is from pra + class 1 root √bhū
  • tena
  • muninā
  • mūṣikaḥ
  • baliṣṭhaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adjective baliṣṭha (“strongest, most mighty”)
    • superlative of adjective balin (“strong”)
      • balin is possessive adjective of bala (n) “strength”
  • biḍālaḥ – note how in the passive sentence, the object is in the nominative. “By him, the mouse was made a strong cat”, meaning,”He made the mouse a strong cat”
    • Note the use of the nominative as the predicate instead of the accusative with kr̥ta
  • kr̥taḥ – nominative singular of masculine adjective kr̥ta (“made”)
    • kr̥ta is past passive participle of class 8 root √kr̥ (“make”)
  • saḥ
  • biḍālaḥ
  • kukkurāt – ablative singular of masculine kukkura (“dog”) – from dog
    • variant of onomatopoetic sound “kurkura”
    • notice the use of the ablative with the verb “fear”
  • bibheti – present active (laṭ लट् parasmai padam) third person singular of class 3 root √bhī (“fear”) – fears
  • tataḥ
  • asau – nominative singular of masculine pronoun adas (“that”)
  • kukkuraḥ
  • kr̥taḥ
  • kukkurasya – genitive singular of masculine kukkura (“dog”) – of the dog
  • vyāghrāt – ablative singular of masculine vyāghrā (“tiger”) – from tiger
  • mahat – nominative singular of neuter adjective mahant (“great”)
  • bhayam – nominative singular of neuter bhaya (“fear’)
    • bhaya is from class 3 root √bhī (“fear”)
  • tadanantaraṃ – indeclinable adverb “thereupon”
  • saḥ
  • vyāghraḥ
  • kr̥taḥ
  • atha
  • vyāghram
  • api
  • tam
  • mūṣikanirviśeṣam – accusative singular of masculine adjective mūṣikanirviśeṣa (“not different from a mouse, undistinguished from a mouse”)
    • mūṣika + nirviśeṣa
      • nirviśeṣa is nis (“without”) + viśeṣa (m) (“difference”)
        • viśeṣa is from vi + class 7 root √śiṣ (“leave”)
  • paśyati
  • muniḥ
  • ataḥ – indeclinable adverb “then”
  • sarve – nominative plural of pronomial masculine adjective sarva (“all”)
  • tatrasthāḥ – nominative plural of masculine adjective tatrastha (“abiding there”)
    • tatra (indeclinable) (“there”) stha (verbal used in compounds)
      • stha is from class 1 root √sthā (“stand”)
  • janāḥ – nominative plural of masculine jana (“person”) – people
    • jana is from class 1 root √jan (“be born, give birth”)
  • tam
  • vyāghram
  • dr̥ṣṭvā – indeclinable (continuative – ktvānta) – “having seen”
    • from class 4 root √dr̥ś (“see”)
  • vadanti – present active (laṭ लट् parasmai padam) third person plural of class 1 root √vad (“say”) – they say
  • anena – instrumental singular of masculine pronoun idam (“this’) – by this
  • muninā
  • mūṣikaḥ
  • ayaṃ – nominative singular of masculine pronoun idam (“this’)
  • vyāghratām – accusative singular of feminine vyāghratā (“condition of being a tiger”) – to the condition of being a tiger
  • nītaḥ – nominative singular of masculine nīta (“led”) – brought to , made
    • nīta is past passive participle of class 1 root √nī (“lead”)
  • etat – accusative singular neuter of pronoun etad (“this’)
  • śrutvā – indeclinable (continuative – ktvānta) – “having heard”
    • from class 5 root √śrū (“hear”)
  • saḥ
  • vyāghraḥ
  • savyathaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adjective savyatha (“with worry”)
    • savyatha is sa (“with”) + vyathā (f) (“trouble, sorrow”)
      • sa is an inseparable prefix denoting similarity
      • vyathā is from class 1 root vyath (“waver”)
  • acintayat – imperfect active (laṅ लङ् parasmai padam) of class 10 root √cint (“think”) – thought
  • yāvat – indeclinable adverb “as long as”
  • anena
  • muninā
  • jīvitavyam – nominative singular neuter jīvitavya (“to be lived”)
    • This is the potential passive participle (gerundive) of class 1 root √jīv (“live”)
      • note the impersonal neutral use of the gerundive as future
      • “By the hermit is to be lived” —> the hermit lives (future)
  • tāvat – indeclinable adverb to go with yāvat – so long
  • idam – nominative singular of neuter pronoun idam (“this’) – by this
  • mama – genitive singular of pronoun asmad (“I”) – my
  • svarūpākhyānam – nominative singular neuter of svarūpākhyāna (“the story of true nature”)
    • svarūpa (n) (“own shape, true nature”) + ākhyāna (n) (“tale or story”)
      • sva (pronoun possessive adjective) + rūpa (n) “form”
      • ākhyāna is from ā + class 2 root √khyā (“see’)
  • akīrtikaram – nominative singular neuter of adjective akīrtikara (“causing disgrace”)
    • akīrtikara is akīrti (f) (“non-fame, disgrace”)+ kara (adjective) “doing, causing”
    • akīrti is a (negative prefix) + kīrti (f) “mention, fame”
      • kīrti is from class 3 root √kr̥ (“praise, mention”)
      • kara is from class 8 root √kr̥ (“make”)
    • Note the two different roots √kr̥ of different classes and different meanings!
  • na – indeclinable adverb “not”
  • palāyiṣyate – future middle (lr̥ṭ लृट् ātmane padam) third person singular of (class 1?) root √palāy (“go away, run away”) – will go away
    • √palāy is an artificial root formed from parā + class 2 root √i (“go”)  meaning “go away”
  • iti
  • samālocya –  indeclinable (continuative – lyabanta) – “having thought”
    • sam + ā + class 1 root √loc (“see, consider”)
  • munim
  • hantum – indeclinable infinitive of class 2 root √han (“smite, kill”) – to kill
  • samudyataḥ – nominative singular of masculine adjective samudyata (“set about”)
    • sam + ud + past passive participle of class 1 root √yam (“reach”)
  • tataḥ
  • muninā
  • tasya – genitive singular of masculine pronoun tad – his
  • cikīrṣitam – accusative singular of neuter cikīrṣita (“intent”)
    • cikīrṣita is the past passive participle of the desiderative of class 8 root √kr̥ (“make”)
      • we will learn about desideratives in a later lesson
  • jñātvā – indeclinable (continuative – ktvānta) of class 9 root √jñā – “having known”
  • punaḥ – Note this is punar; that is, the visarga represents final “r”, not “s”
  • mūṣikaḥ
  • bhava – imperative active (loṭ लोट् parasmai padam) second person singular of class 1 root √bhū (“be, become”) – become
    • Note predicate nominative with √bhū
  • iti
  • uktvā – indeclinable (continuative – ktvānta) of class 3 root √vac – “having spoken”
  • mūṣikaḥ
  • eva
  • kr̥taḥ
  • ataḥ
  • ahaṃ
  • bravīmi
  • nīcaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adjective nīca (“low”) – a low person
  • ślāghyapadam – accusative singular of neuter ślāghyapada (“high position”)
    • ślāghya (adj) + pada (n)
      • ślāghya is gerundive of class 1 root √ślāgh (“extol”) – praiseworthy
      • pada is from class 4 root √pad (“go”) – position
  • prāpya
  • svāminam – accusative singular masculine of svāmin (“master”)
    • from possessive pronoun adjective from sva (“own”)
  • loptum – indeclinable infinitive of class 6 root √lup (“break, harm”) – to harm
  • icchati – present active (laṭ लट् parasmai padam) third person singular of class 6 root √iṣ (“desire”) – wishes
  • mūṣikaḥ
  • vyāghratām
  • prāpya
  • munim
  • hantum
  • gataḥ – nominative singular of masculine adjective gata (“gone”) – went
    • past passive participle of class 1 root √gam (“go”)
  • yathā – indeclinable relative adverb “like, as”

Word-by-word meaning

asti (there is) gautamāraṇye (in the Gutama forest) mahātapāḥ (Mahatapa) nāma (by name) muniḥ (hermit) | tena (by him) āśramasaṃnidhāne (near his hermitage) mūṣikaśāvakaḥ (mouseling) kākamukhāt (from a crow’s mouth) bhraṣṭaḥ (fallen) dr̥ṣṭaḥ (was seen)| tataḥ (then) dayālunā (compassionate) tena (by him) muninā (by hermit) nīvārakaṇaiḥ (with rice grains) saḥ (it) saṃvardhitaḥ (was brought up)| tam (that) ca (also)  mūṣikam (mouse) khāditum (to eat) anudhāvan (running after) biḍālaḥ (cat) muninā (by the hermit) dr̥ṣṭaḥ (was seen) | paścāt (thereafter) tapaḥprabhāvāt (from the strength of his penance) tena (by that) muninā (hermit) mūṣikaḥ (mouse) baliṣṭhaḥ (strong) biḍālaḥ (cat) kr̥taḥ (was made) | saḥ (that) biḍālaḥ (cat) kukkurāt (from dog) bibheti (fears)| tataḥ (then) asau (it) kukkuraḥ (dog) kr̥taḥ (was made) | kukkurasya (of the dog ) vyāghrāt (from tiger) mahat (great) bhayam (fear) | tadanantaram (thereupon) saḥ (it) vyāghraḥ (tiger) kr̥taḥ (was made) | atha (then) vyāghram (tiger) api (even though) tam (it) mūṣikanirviśeṣaṃ (undistinguished from a mouse) paśyati (sees) muniḥ (hermit) | ataḥ (then) sarve (all) tatrasthā (abiding there)  janāḥ (people) taṃ (that) vyāghraṃ (tiger) dr̥ṣṭvā (having seen) vadanti (say) | anena (by this )muninā (hermit) mūṣikaḥ (mouse) ayam (this) vyāghratām (condition of being a tiger) nītaḥ (was led) | etat (this) śrutvā  (having heard) saḥ (that) vyāghraḥ (tiger) savyathaḥ (with worry) acintayat (thought)| yāvat (as long as) anena (by this) muninā (hermit) jīvitavyam (to be lived)  tāvat (so long) idam (this) mama (my) svarūpākhyānam (story of true nature) akīrtikaram (causing disgrace)  na (not) palāyiṣyate (will go away) | iti (thus) samālocya (having thought) munim (hermit) hantum (to kill)  samudyataḥ (set about) | tataḥ (then) muninā (by the hermit) tasya (his) cikīrṣitam (intent) jñātvā (having known) punaḥ (again) mūṣikaḥ (mouse) bhava (become) iti (thus) uktvā  (having said) mūṣikaḥ (mouse) eva (even) kr̥taḥ (made) | ataḥ (therfore) aham (I) bravīmi  (say)|

nīcaḥ (low person) ślāghyapadaṃ (high position ) prāpya (having attained) svāminam (master) loptum (to harm) icchati (wishes) |

mūṣikaḥ (mouse) vyāghratāṃ (tiger-state) prāpya (having attained) munim (hermit) hantuṃ (to kill) gatah (has gone)  yathā  (like)||

Meaning

There was a hermit named Mahatapa in Gautama forest. (Once) He saw a mouseling that had fallen from the mouth of a crow, near his hermitage. The compassionate hermit brought up the mouseling on wild rice grains. (One day) He saw a cat running after the mouse to catch it. So, by the strength of his penance, he changed the mouse into a strong cat. The cat was afraid of dogs. So he changed it into a dog. The dog was scared of tigers. Therefore he changed it into a tiger. (But) even though it was the tiger, the hermit considered it only a mouse. People living there looked at the tiger and said that this hermit has changed a mouse into this tiger. The tiger was not happy and thought, as long as this hermit lives, the story of my disgraceful true nature will not go away. Thinking thus, he decided to kill the hermit. The hermit sensing his intent changed him back to a mouse, saying “become a mouse”.

Therefore I say,

A low person who attains a high position wishes to harm his master,

Like the mouse who was changed to a tiger tried to kill the hermit.

This is the end of Lesson 22.

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