Some conjugational forms of common verbs

[Reference used for this page is ‘A Rapid Sanskrit Method’ by George L. Hart]

Present Active Participles

The present active participle of any verb is formed by removing the final “i” of the 3rd person plural active form of the verb. [So, class 3 forms end in “at” and other class forms end in”ant”]

Feminines of these forms are made as follows: Thematic verbs (classes 1,4,6 and 10) form feminines in “antī”. Athematic verbs form their feminines in “atī”. [Class 6 verbs may optionally take the “atī” form also, while class 2 verbs ending in “ā” may optionally take the “antī” ending also.]

Since the formation of the present active participles are very regular only a few examples are shown.

Root Class Present active participle Present active participle (feminine)
bhū 1 bhavant bhavantī
sthā 1 tiṣṭhant tiṣṭhantī
paś 4 paśyant paśyantī
viś 6 viśant viśantī / viśatī
pracch 6 pr̥cchant pr̥cchantī / pr̥cchatī
cur 10 corayant corayantī
han 2 ghnant ghnatī
as 2 sant satī
snā 2 snānt snātī / snāntī
dhā 3 dadhat dadhatī
3 dadat dadatī
bhr̥ 3 bibhrat bibhratī
śru 5 śr̥ṇvant śr̥ṇvatī
yuj 7 yuñjant yuñjatī
kr̥ 8 kurvant kurvatī
krī 9 krīṇant krīṇatī

Present Middle Participles

Present middle participles of thematic verbs are formed by adding “māna” to the 3rd person present plural middle instead of the ending “ante”. Present middle participles of athematic verbs are formed by adding “āna” to the 3rd person present plural middle instead of the ending “ate”. The formation is very regular. Examples: labh –> labhamāna ; yuj –> yuñjāna

Some other forms

Table 1

Root Present 3rd singular Passive present 3rd singular 3rd single present causative 3rd single causative passive
arh arhate arhayati
as asti
āp āpnoti āpyate āpayati āpyate
ās āste āsyate āsayati āsyate
hvā, hu hvayati hūyate
i eti īyate
iṣ ichati iṣyate eṣayati
kr̥ karoti kriyate kārayati kāryate
kr̥ṣ karṣati kr̥ṣyte karṣayati karṣyate
kl̥p kalpate kl̥pyate kalpayati kalpyate
krī krīṇāti krīyate krāpayati krāpyate
krīḍ krīḍati krīḍyate krīḍayati krīḍyate
gam gacchati gamyate gamayati gamyate
grah gr̥hṇāti gr̥hyate grāhayati grāhyate
cur corayati coryate corayati coryate
jan jāyate none janayati janyate
ji jayati jīyate jāpayati jāpyate
jīv jīvati jīvyate jīvayati jīvyate
jñā jānāti jñāyate jñāpayati jñapyate
tyaj tyajati tyajyate tyājayati tyājyate
dah dahati dahyate dāhayati dāhyate
dadāti dīyate dāpayati dāpyate
dhāv dhāvati dhāvyate dhāvayati dhāvyate
naś naśyati naśyate nāśayati nāśyate
grah gr̥bhṇāti gr̥hyate grāhayati grāhyate
diś di?ṣati diśyate deśayati
nayati nīyate nāyayati nāyyate
paṭh paṭhati paṭhyate pāṭhayati pāṭhyate
paś paśyati dr̥śyate darśayati darśyate
pibati pīyate pāyayati pāyyate
pīḍ pīḍayati pīḍyate pīḍayati pīḍyate
pracch pr̥cchati pr̥cchyate pracchayati pracchyate
īkṣ īkṣati īkṣyate īkṣayati īkṣyate
yuj yunakti yujyate yojayati yojyate
brū bravīti
bhū bhavati bhūyate bhāvayati bhāvyate
bhr̥ bibharti bhriyate bhārayati bhāryate
man manyate manyate mānayati mānyate
muc muñcati mucyate muñcayati muñcyate
mr̥ mriyate mārayati māryate
yaj yajati ijyate yājayati
yam yacchati yamyate yamayati yamyate
labh labhate labhyate lambhayati lambhyate
likh likhati likhyate lekhayati lekhyate
vac vakti ucyate vācayati vācyate
vad vadati udyate vādayati vādyate
vas vasati uṣyate vāsayati vāsyate
vah vahati uhyate vāhayati vāhyate
vid (find)) vindati vidyate vedayati
vid (know) vetti vidyate vedayati vedyate
dhā dadhāti / dhatte dhīyate dhāpayati dhāpyate
viś viśati viśyate veśayati veśyate
vr̥t vartate vr̥tyate vartayati vartyate
vr̥dh vardhate vr̥dhyate vardhayati vardhyate
śaṃs śaṃsati śasyate śaṃsayati śaṃsyate
śak
śru śr̥ṇoti śrūyate śrāvayati śrāvyate
sev sevate sevyate sevayati sevyate
sthā tiṣṭhati sthīyate sthāpayati sthāpyate
spr̥ś spr̥śati spr̥śyate sparśayati sparśyate
smr̥ smarati smriyate smārayati smāryate
han hanti hanyate ghātayati ghātyate
has hasati hāsayati hāsyate
jahāti hīyate hāpayati hāpyate
adhī (adhi + i) adhīte adhīyate adhyāpayati adhyāpyate

Table 2

Root Past Passive participle Past Passive participle causative Continuative (ktvAnta) Lyabanta (P – prefix)
arh
as
āp āpta āpita āptvā Pāpya
ās āsita āsita āsitvā Pāsya
hvā, hu hūta hūtvā Phuya
i ita itvā Pitya
iṣ iṣṭa iṣtvā Piṣya
kr̥ kr̥ta kārita kr̥tvā Pkr̥tya
kr̥ṣ kr̥ṣṭa karṣita kr̥ṣṭvā Pkr̥ṣya
kl̥p kl̥pta kalpita kl̥ptvā Pkl̥pya
krī krīta krāpita krītvā Pkrīya
krīḍ krīḍita krīḍita krīḍitvā Pkrīḍya
gam gata gamita gatvā Pgamya, Pgatya
grah gr̥hīta grāhita gr̥hītvā Pgr̥hya
cur corita corita corayitvā Pcorya
jan jāta janita jātvā
ji jita jāpita jitvā Pjitya
jīv jīvita jīvita jīvitvā Pjīvya
jñā jñāta jñāpta jñātvā Pjñaya
tyaj tyakta tyājita tyaktvā Ptyajya
dah dagdha dāhita dagdhvā Pdahya
datta dāpita dattvā Pdāya
dhāv dhāvita dhāvita dhāvitvā Pdhāvya
naś naṣṭa nāśita naṣtvā Pnaśya
grah gr̥hīta gr̥hītvā Pgr̥hya
diś diṣṭa Pdiśya
nīta nāyita nītvā Pnīya
paṭh paṭhita pāṭhita paṭhitvā Ppaṭhya
paś dr̥ṣṭa darśita dr̥ṣtvā Pdr̥śya
pīta pāyita pītvā Ppāya
pīḍ pīḍita pīḍita pīḍitvā Ppīḍya
pracch pr̥ṣṭa pracchita pr̥ṣtvā Ppracchya
īkṣ īkṣita īkṣitvā Pīkṣya
yuj yukta yuktvā Pyujya
brū
bhū bhūta bhāvita bhūtvā Pbhūya
bhr̥ bhr̥ta bhārita bhr̥tvā Pbhr̥tya
man mata mānita matvā Pmatya
muc mukta muñcita muktvā Pmucya
mr̥ mr̥ta mārita mr̥tvā Pmr̥tya
yaj iṣṭa iṣṭvā
yam yata yamita yatvā Pyamya, Pyatya
labh labdha lambhita labdhvā Plabhya
likh likhita lekhita likhitvā Plikhya
vac ukta vācita uktvā Pucya
vad udita vādita uditvā Pudya
vas uṣita vāsita uṣitvā Puṣya
vah ūdha vāhita ūdhvā Pūhya
vid (find)) vitta vittvā Pvidya
vid (know) vidita viditvā
dhā hita dhāpita hitvā Pdhāya
viś viṣṭa veśita viṣtvā Pviśya
vr̥t vr̥tta vartita vr̥ttvā Pvr̥tya
vr̥dh vr̥ddha vardhita vr̥ddhvā Pvr̥dhya
śaṃs śasta śaṃsita śastvā Pśasya
śak
śru śruta śrāvita śrutvā Pśrutya
sev sevita sevita sevitvā Psevya
sthā sthita sthāpita sthitvā Psthāya
spr̥ś spr̥ṣṭa sparśita spr̥ṣtvā Pspr̥śya
smr̥ smr̥ta smārita smr̥tvā Psmr̥tya
han hata ghātita hatvā Phatya
has hasita hāsita hasitvā Phasya
hīna hāpita hātvā Phāya
adhī (adhi + i) adhīta adhyāpita adhītya

Table 3

Root Infinitive Simple future 3rd singular Periphrastic future 3rd singular 3rd singular perfect
arh
as āsa
āp āptum āpsyati āptā āpa
ās āsitum āsiṣyate āsitā āsāṃ cakre
hvā, hu Phvayitum hvayiṣyati hvātā juhāva
i etum eṣyati etā iyāya
iṣ eṣṭum eṣiṣyati eṣtā iyeṣa
kr̥ kartum kariṣyati kartā cakāra
kr̥ṣ kraṣṭum karkṣyati karṣtā cakrṣa
kl̥p kalpitum kalpiṣyate kalpitā caklpe
krī kretum kreṣyati kretā cikrāya
krīḍ krīḍitum krīḍiṣyati krīḍitā cikrīḍa
gam gantum gamiṣyati gantā jagāma
grah grahītum grahīṣyati grahītā jagrāha
cur corayitum corayiṣyati corayitā corayām asa
jan janitum janiṣyate janitā jajñe
ji jetum jeṣyati jetā jigāya
jīv jīvitum jīviṣyati jīvitā jijīva
jñā jñatum jñasyati jñatā jajñau
tyaj tyaktum tyakṣyati tyaktā tatyāja
dah dagdhum dhakṣyati dagdhā dadāha
dātum dāsyati dātā dadau
dhāv dhāvitum dhāviṣyati dhāvitā dadhāva
naś naṣṭum naṅkṣyati, naśiṣyati naśitā nanāśa
grah grahītum grahīṣyati grahītā jagrāha
diś deṣṭum dekṣyati deṣtā dideśa
netum neṣyati netā nināya
paṭh paṭhitum paṭhiṣyati paṭhitā papāṭha
paś draṣṭum drakṣyati draṣtā dadarśa
pātum pāsyati pātā papau
pīḍ pīḍitum pīḍīṣyati pīḍitā pipīḍa
pracch praṣṭum prakṣyati praṣtā papraccha
īkṣ īkṣitum pratīkṣiṣyati īkṣitā īkṣāṃ cakre
yuj yoktum yokṣyati yoktā yuyuje
brū
bhū bhavitum bhaviṣyati bhavitā babhūva
bhr̥ bhartum bhariṣyati bhartā babhāra
man mantum maṃsyati mantā mene
muc moktum mokṣyati moktā mumoca
mr̥ martum mariṣyati martā mamāra
yaj yaṣṭum yakṣyati yaṣṭa īje
yam yantum yaṃsyati yantā yayāma
labh labhdum lapsyate labhdā lebhe
likh likhitum, lekhitum lekhiṣyati lekhitā lilekha
vac vaktum vakṣyati vaktā uvāca
vad vaditum vadiṣyati uvāda
vas vastum vatsayti vastā uvāsa
vah voḍhum vakṣyati voḍhā uvāha
vid (find)) vettum vetsyati Pvettā viveda
vid (know) vettum vediṣyati veditā veda
dhā dhātum dhāsyati, te dhātā dadhau, dadhe
viś veṣṭum vekṣyati veṣtā viveśa
vr̥t vartitum vartiṣyate vartitā vavr̥te
vr̥dh vardhitum vardhiṣyate vardhitā vavr̥dhe
śaṃs śaṃsitum śaṃsiṣyati śaṃsitā śaśaṃsa
śak śakṣyati śaktā śaśāka
śru śrotum śroṣyati śrotā śuśrāva
sev sevitum seviṣyate sevitā siṣeve
sthā sthātum sthāsyati sthātā tasthau
spr̥ś spraṣṭum sprakṣyati spraṣtā pasparśa
smr̥ smartum smariṣyati smartā sasmāra
han hantum haniṣyati hantā jaghāna
has hasitum hasiṣyati hasitā jahāsa
hātum hāsyati hātā jahau
adhī (adhi + i) adhyetum adhyeṣyate adhyetā adhīye

Table 4

Root 3rd plural perfect ya gerundive (P-prefix) tavya gerundive (P-prefix) anIya gerundive (P-prefix)
arh arhaṇīya
as āsuḥ
āp āpuḥ āpya āptavya
ās āsāṃ cakrire āsitavya
hvā, hu juhuvuḥ havya Phvayitavya
i īyuḥ eya etavya
iṣ īṣuḥ eṣya eṣṭavya eṣaṇīya
kr̥ cakruḥ kārya kartavya karaṇīya
kr̥ṣ cakr̥ṣuḥ kraṣṭavya karṣaṇīya
kl̥p caklpire kalpya kalpitavya kalpanīya
krī cikriyuḥ kravya kretavya
krīḍ cikrīḍuḥ krīḍitavya
gam jagmuḥ gamya gantavya gamanīya
grah jagr̥huḥ grāhya grāhitavya grahaṇiya
cur corayām asuḥ corya corayitavya coraṇīya
jan jajñire janya janayitavya
ji jigyuḥ jeya jetavya
jīv jijīvuḥ jīvya jīvitavya jīvanīya
jñā jajñuḥ jñeya jñātavya
tyaj tatyajuḥ tyajya/tyājya tyaktavya
dah dehuḥ dāhya dagdhavya
daduḥ deya dātavya
dhāv dadhāvuḥ dhāvitavya dhāvanīya
naś neśuḥ naṣṭavya
grah jagr̥huḥ grāhya grahītavya grahaṇīya
diś didiśuḥ deśya deṣṭavya
ninyuḥ neya netavya
paṭh papaṭhuḥ pāthya paṭhitavya paṭhanīya
paś dadr̥śuḥ dr̥śya draṣṭavya darśanīya
papuḥ peya pātavya pānīya
pīḍ pipīḍuḥ pīḍya pīḍitavya pīḍanīya
pracch papracchuḥ pr̥cchya praṣṭavya
īkṣ īkṣāṃ cakrire Pīkṣya Pīkṣitavya Ptīkṣaṇīya
yuj yuyujire yojya yoktavya yojanīya
brū
bhū babhūvuḥ bhāvya bhavitavya
bhr̥ babhruḥ bhr̥tya, bhārya bhartavya bharaṇīya
man menire mantavya
muc mumucuḥ mocya moktavya mocanīya
mr̥ mamruḥ martavya
yaj ījire yājya yaṣṭavya yājanīya
yam yemuḥ yamya yantavya
labh lebhire labhya labdhavya
likh lilikhuḥ likhya, lekhya likhitavya lekhanīya
vac ūcuḥ vācya vaktavya vacanīya
vad ūduḥ vādya vaditavya
vas ūṣuḥ vāsya vastavya
vah ūhuḥ vāhya voḍhavya vāhanīya
vid (find)) vividuḥ Pvidya Pvettavya Pvedanīya
vid (know) viduḥ vedya veditavya vedanīya
dhā dadhuḥ, dadhire Pdheya Pdhātavya
viś viviśuḥ veśya veṣṭavya
vr̥t vavr̥tire varitavya vartanīya
vr̥dh vavr̥dhire vardhitavya vardhanīya
śaṃs śaśaṃsuḥ śaṃsya śaṃsanīya
śak śekuḥ śakya
śru śuśruvuḥ śravya, śrāvya śrotavya śravanīya
sev siṣevire sevya sevitavya sevanīya
sthā tasthuḥ stheya sthātavya
spr̥ś paspr̥śuḥ spr̥śya spraṣṭavya sparśanīya
smr̥ sasmaruḥ smarya smartavya smaraṇīya
han jaghnuḥ hantavya
has jahasuḥ hāsya hasitavya hasanīya
jahuḥ heya hātavya
adhī (adhi + i) adhīyire adhyeya adhyetavya
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