Lesson 41 – A story from the Hitopadeśa

A short YouTube version is available here. [Expand to the full article to be able to click on the link].

In Lesson 38, Lesson 39 and Lesson 40, we looked at some aspects of Sanskrit syntax. We said that syntax deals with the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language. In Lesson 38, we looked at Word Order, Number, Concord, Pronouns and the Nominative and Accusative cases and in Lesson 39 we looked at the Instrumental, Dative, Ablative and Genitive Cases. In Lesson 40 we looked at the Locative Case, Absolute construction, Participles and the Infinitive.

In this lesson, Lesson 41, we will take another story from the Hitopadeśa and analyse it.

This story, “The Blue Jackal”, is fable 7 of book 3 of the Hitopadeśa. This story corresponds to the  Pañcatantra story fable 10 of book 1.

Here’s the story:

अस्ति सृगालः कस्चित्स्वेच्छया नगरोपान्ते भ्रमन्नीलसंधानभाण्डे निपतितः | पश्चात्तत उत्थातुमसमर्थः प्रातरात्मानं मृतवत्संदर्श्य स्थितः | अथ नीलीभाण्डस्वामिनासावुत्थाप्य दूरे नीत्वा परित्यक्तः | ततोऽसौ वनं गत्वात्मानं नीलवर्णमवलोक्याचिन्तयत् | अहमीदानीमुत्तमवर्णः | तदात्मनः किमुत्कर्षं न साधयामि | इत्यालोच्य सृगालानाहूय तेनोक्तम् | अहं भगवत्या वनदेवतया स्वहस्तेनारण्यराज्ये सर्वौषधिरसेनाभिषिक्तः | पश्यत मम वर्णम् | अद्यारभ्यास्मदाज्ञयास्मिन्नरण्ये व्यवहारः कार्यः | सृगालाश्च तं विशिष्टवर्णमवलोक्य साष्टाङ्गपातं प्रणम्योचुः | यथाज्ञापयति देवः | ततोऽनेन क्रमेण सर्वेष्वरण्यवासिष्वाधिपत्यं तस्य बभूव | ततस्तेन सिंहव्याघ्रादीनुत्तमपरिजनान्प्राप्य सृगालानवलोक्य लज्जमानेनावज्ञया दूरीकृताः स्वज्ञातयः | ततो विषण्णान्सृगालानवलोक्य वृद्धसृगालेन केन चित्प्रतिज्ञातम् | मा विषीदत | एवं चेदनेनानीतिज्ञेन वयं मर्मज्ञाः परिभूताः तद्यथायं नश्यति तन्मया विधेयम् | यतोऽमी व्याघ्रादयो वर्णमात्रविप्रलब्धाः सृगालमज्ञात्वा राजानममुं मन्यन्ते तद्यथायं परिचीयते तथा कुरुत | तत्र चैवमनुष्ठेयं यथा वदामि | यदा सर्वे संध्यासमये तत्संनिधाने महारावमेकदा करिष्यथ ततस्तं शब्दमाकर्ण्य स्वभावात्तेनापि शब्दः कर्तव्यः | यतः |

  • यः स्वभावो हि यस्य स्यात्तस्यासौ दुरतिक्रमः |
  • श्वा यदि क्रियते भोगी तत्किं नाश्नात्युपानहम् ||

ततः शब्दाद्विज्ञाय व्याघ्रेण हन्तव्यः | तथानुष्ठिते सति तद्वृत्तम् | तथा चोक्तम् |

  • छिद्रं मर्म च वीर्यं च विजानाति निजो रिपुः |
  • दहत्यन्तर्गतश्चैव शुष्कवृक्षमिवानलः ||

अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि |

  • आत्मपक्षं परित्यज्य परपक्षे च यो रतः |
  • स परैर्हन्यते मूढो नीलवर्णसृगालवत् ||

asti sr̥gālaḥ kascitsvecchayā nagaropānte bhramannīlasaṃdhānabhāṇḍe nipatitaḥ | paścāttata utthātumasamarthaḥ prātarātmānaṃ mr̥tavatsaṃdarśya sthitaḥ | atha nīlībhāṇḍasvāmināsāvutthāpya dūre nītvā parityaktaḥ | tato’sau vanaṃ gatvātmānaṃ nīlavarṇamavalokyācintayat | ahamīdānīmuttamavarṇaḥ | tadātmanaḥ kimutkarṣaṃ na sādhayāmi | ityālocya sr̥gālānāhūya tenoktam | ahaṃ bhagavatyā vanadevatayā svahastenāraṇyarājye sarvauṣadhirasenābhiṣiktaḥ | paśyata mama varṇam | adyārabhyāsmadājñayāsminnaraṇye vyavahāraḥ kāryaḥ | sr̥gālāśca taṃ viśiṣṭavarṇamavalokya sāṣṭāṅgapātaṃ praṇamyocuḥ | yathājñāpayati devaḥ | tato’nena krameṇa sarveṣvaraṇyavāsiṣvādhipatyaṃ tasya babhūva | tatastena siṃhavyāghrādīnuttamaparijanānprāpya sr̥gālānavalokya lajjamānenāvajñayā dūrīkr̥tāḥ svajñātayaḥ | tato viṣaṇṇānsr̥gālānavalokya vr̥ddhasr̥gālena kena citpratijñātam | mā viṣīdata | evaṃ cedanenānītijñena vayaṃ marmajñāḥ paribhūtāḥ tadyathāyaṃ naśyati tanmayā vidheyam | yato’mī vyāghrādayo varṇamātravipralabdhāḥ sr̥gālamajñātvā rājānamamuṃ manyante tadyathāyaṃ paricīyate tathā kuruta | tatra caivamanuṣṭheyaṃ yathā vadāmi | yadā sarve saṃdhyāsamaye tatsaṃnidhāne mahārāvamekadā kariṣyatha tatastaṃ śabdamākarṇya svabhāvāttenāpi śabdaḥ kartavyaḥ | yataḥ |

  • yaḥ svabhāvo hi yasya syāttasyāsau duratikramaḥ |
  • śvā yadi kriyate bhogī tatkiṃ nāśnātyupānaham ||

tataḥ śabdādvijñāya vyāghreṇa hantavyaḥ | tathānuṣṭhite sati tadvr̥ttam | tathā coktam |

  • chidraṃ marma ca vīryaṃ ca vijānāti nijo ripuḥ |
  • dahatyantargataścaiva śuṣkavr̥kṣamivānalaḥ ||

ato’haṃ bravīmi |

  • ātmapakṣaṃ parityajya parapakṣe ca yo rataḥ |
  • sa parairhanyate mūḍho nīlavarṇasr̥gālavat ||

Let us remove the Sandhis to look at the lines word by word.

Line by line Line by line without Sandhis
अस्ति सृगालः कस्चित्स्वेच्छया नगरोपान्ते भ्रमन्नीलसंधानभाण्डे निपतितः अस्ति सृगालः कस्चिद् स्वेच्छया नगरोपान्ते भ्रमन् नीलसंधानभाण्डे निपतितः
पश्चात्तत उत्थातुमसमर्थः प्रातरात्मानं मृतवत्संदर्श्य स्थितः पश्चात् ततः उत्थातुम् असमर्थः प्रातः आत्मानम् मृतवत् संदर्श्य स्थितः
अथ नीलीभाण्डस्वामिनासावुत्थाप्य दूरे नीत्वा परित्यक्तः अथ नीलीभाण्डस्वामिना असौ उत्थाप्य दूरे नीत्वा परित्यक्तः
ततोऽसौ वनं गत्वात्मानं नीलवर्णमवलोक्याचिन्तयत् ततः असौ वनम् गत्वा आत्मानम् नीलवर्णम् अवलोक्य अचिन्तयत्
अहमीदानीमुत्तमवर्णः अहम् ईदानीम् उत्तमवर्णः
तदात्मनः किमुत्कर्षं न साधयामि तद् आत्मनः किम् उत्कर्षम् न साधयामि
इत्यालोच्य सृगालानाहूय तेनोक्तम् इति आलोच्य सृगालान् आहूय तेन उक्तम्
अहं भगवत्या वनदेवतया स्वहस्तेनारण्यराज्ये सर्वौषधिरसेनाभिषिक्तः अहम् भगवत्या वनदेवतया स्वहस्तेन आरण्यराज्ये सर्वौषधिरसेन अभिषिक्तः
पश्यत मम वर्णम् पश्यत मम वर्णम्
अद्यारभ्यास्मदाज्ञयास्मिन्नरण्ये व्यवहारः कार्यः अद्य आरभ्य अस्मदाज्ञया अस्मिन् अरण्ये व्यवहारः कार्यः
सृगालाश्च तं विशिष्टवर्णमवलोक्य साष्टाङ्गपातं प्रणम्योचुः सृगालाः च तम् विशिष्टवर्णम् अवलोक्य साष्टाङ्गपातम् प्रणम्य ऊचुः
यथाज्ञापयति देवः यथा आज्ञापयति देवः
ततोऽनेन क्रमेण सर्वेष्वरण्यवासिष्वाधिपत्यं तस्य बभूव ततः अनेन क्रमेण सर्वेषु अरण्यवासिषु आधिपत्यम् तस्य बभूव
ततस्तेन सिंहव्याघ्रादीनुत्तमपरिजनान्प्राप्य सृगालानवलोक्य लज्जमानेनावज्ञया दूरीकृताः स्वज्ञातयः ततः तेन सिंहव्याघ्रादीन् उत्तमपरिजनान् प्राप्य सृगालान् अवलोक्य लज्जमानेन अवज्ञया दूरीकृताः स्वज्ञातयः
ततो विषण्णान्सृगालानवलोक्य वृद्धसृगालेन केन चित्प्रतिज्ञातम् ततः विषण्णान् सृगालान् अवलोक्य वृद्धसृगालेन केन चिद् प्रतिज्ञातम्
मा विषीदत मा विषीदत
एवं चेदनेनानीतिज्ञेन वयं मर्मज्ञाः परिभूताः तद्यथायं नश्यति तन्मया विधेयम् एवम् चेद् अनेन अनीतिज्ञेन वयम् मर्मज्ञाः परिभूताः तद् यथा अयं नश्यति तद् मया विधेयम्
यतोऽमी व्याघ्रादयो वर्णमात्रविप्रलब्धाः सृगालमज्ञात्वा राजानममुं मन्यन्ते तद्यथायं परिचीयते तथा कुरुत यतः अमी व्याघ्रादयः वर्णमात्रविप्रलब्धाः सृगालम् अज्ञात्वा राजानम् अमुम् मन्यन्ते तद् यथा अयम् परिचीयते तथा कुरुत
तत्र चैवमनुष्ठेयं यथा वदामि तत्र च एवम् अनुष्ठेयम् यथा वदामि
यदा सर्वे संध्यासमये तत्संनिधाने महारावमेकदा करिष्यथ ततस्तं शब्दमाकर्ण्य स्वभावात्तेनापि शब्दः कर्तव्यः यदा सर्वे संध्यासमये तत्संनिधाने महारावम् एकदा करिष्यथ ततः तं शब्दम् आकर्ण्य स्वभावात् तेन अपि शब्दः कर्तव्यः
यतः यतः
यः स्वभावो हि यस्य स्यात्तस्यासौ दुरतिक्रमः यः स्वभावः हि यस्य स्यात् तस्य असौ दुरतिक्रमः
श्वा यदि क्रियते भोगी तत्किं नाश्नात्युपानहम् श्वा यदि क्रियते भोगी तद् किम् न अश्नाति उपानहम्
ततः शब्दाद्विज्ञाय व्याघ्रेण हन्तव्यः ततः शब्दात् विज्ञाय व्याघ्रेण हन्तव्यः
तथानुष्ठिते सति तद्वृत्तम् तथा अनुष्ठिते सति तद्वृत्तम्
तथा चोक्तम् तथा च उक्तम्
छिद्रं मर्म च वीर्यं च विजानाति निजो रिपुः छिद्रम् मर्म च वीर्यम् च विजानाति निजः रिपुः
दहत्यन्तर्गतश्चैव शुष्कवृक्षमिवानलः दहति अन्तर्गतः च एव शुष्कवृक्षम् इव अनलः
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि अतः अहम् ब्रवीमि
आत्मपक्षं परित्यज्य परपक्षे च यो रतः आत्मपक्षम् परित्यज्य परपक्षे च यः रतः
स परैर्हन्यते मूढो नीलवर्णसृगालवत् स परैः हन्यते मूढः नीलवर्णसृगालवत्

 

Line by line Line by line without Sandhis
asti sr̥gālaḥ kascitsvecchayā nagaropānte bhramannīlasaṃdhānabhāṇḍe nipatitaḥ asti sr̥gālaḥ kascid svecchayā nagaropānte bhraman nīlasaṃdhānabhāṇḍe nipatitaḥ
paścāttata utthātumasamarthaḥ prātarātmānaṃ mr̥tavatsaṃdarśya sthitaḥ paścāt tataḥ utthātum asamarthaḥ prātaḥ (=prātar) ātmānam mr̥tavat saṃdarśya sthitaḥ
atha nīlībhāṇḍasvāmināsāvutthāpya dūre nītvā parityaktaḥ atha nīlībhāṇḍasvāminā asau utthāpya dūre nītvā parityaktaḥ
tato’sau vanaṃ gatvātmānaṃ nīlavarṇamavalokyācintayat tataḥ asau vanam gatvā ātmānam nīlavarṇam avalokya acintayat
ahamīdānīmuttamavarṇaḥ aham īdānīm uttamavarṇaḥ
tadātmanaḥ kimutkarṣaṃ na sādhayāmi tad ātmanaḥ kim utkarṣam na sādhayāmi
ityālocya sr̥gālānāhūya tenoktam iti ālocya sr̥gālān āhūya tena uktam
ahaṃ bhagavatyā vanadevatayā svahastenāraṇyarājye sarvauṣadhirasenābhiṣiktaḥ aham bhagavatyā vanadevatayā svahastena āraṇyarājye sarvauṣadhirasena abhiṣiktaḥ
paśyata mama varṇam paśyata mama varṇam
adyārabhyāsmadājñayāsminnaraṇye vyavahāraḥ kāryaḥ adya ārabhya asmadājñayā asmin araṇye vyavahāraḥ kāryaḥ
sr̥gālāśca taṃ viśiṣṭavarṇamavalokya sāṣṭāṅgapātaṃ praṇamyocuḥ sr̥gālāḥ ca tam viśiṣṭavarṇam avalokya sāṣṭāṅgapātam praṇamya ūcuḥ
yathājñāpayati devaḥ yathā ājñāpayati devaḥ
tato’nena krameṇa sarveṣvaraṇyavāsiṣvādhipatyaṃ tasya babhūva tataḥ anena krameṇa sarveṣu araṇyavāsiṣu ādhipatyam tasya babhūva
tatastena siṃhavyāghrādīnuttamaparijanānprāpya sr̥gālānavalokya lajjamānenāvajñayā dūrīkr̥tāḥ svajñātayaḥ tataḥ tena siṃhavyāghrādīn uttamaparijanān prāpya sr̥gālān avalokya lajjamānena avajñayā dūrīkr̥tāḥ svajñātayaḥ
tato viṣaṇṇānsr̥gālānavalokya vr̥ddhasr̥gālena kena citpratijñātam tataḥ viṣaṇṇān sr̥gālān avalokya vr̥ddhasr̥gālena kena cid pratijñātam
mā viṣīdata mā viṣīdata
evaṃ cedanenānītijñena vayaṃ marmajñāḥ paribhūtāḥ tadyathāyaṃ naśyati tanmayā vidheyam evam ced anena anītijñena vayam marmajñāḥ paribhūtāḥ tad yathā ayaṃ naśyati tad mayā vidheyam
yato’mī vyāghrādayo varṇamātravipralabdhāḥ sr̥gālamajñātvā rājānamamuṃ manyante tadyathāyaṃ paricīyate tathā kuruta yataḥ amī vyāghrādayaḥ varṇamātravipralabdhāḥ sr̥gālam ajñātvā rājānam amum manyante tad yathā ayam paricīyate tathā kuruta
tatra caivamanuṣṭheyaṃ yathā vadāmi tatra ca evam anuṣṭheyam yathā vadāmi
yadā sarve saṃdhyāsamaye tatsaṃnidhāne mahārāvamekadā kariṣyatha tatastaṃ śabdamākarṇya svabhāvāttenāpi śabdaḥ kartavyaḥ yadā sarve saṃdhyāsamaye tatsaṃnidhāne mahārāvam ekadā kariṣyatha tataḥ taṃ śabdam ākarṇya svabhāvāt tena api śabdaḥ kartavyaḥ
yataḥ yataḥ
yaḥ svabhāvo hi yasya syāttasyāsau duratikramaḥ yaḥ svabhāvaḥ hi yasya syāt tasya asau duratikramaḥ
śvā yadi kriyate bhogī tatkiṃ nāśnātyupānaham śvā yadi kriyate bhogī tad kim na aśnāti upānaham
tataḥ śabdādvijñāya vyāghreṇa hantavyaḥ tataḥ śabdāt vijñāya vyāghreṇa hantavyaḥ
tathānuṣṭhite sati tadvr̥ttam tathā anuṣṭhite sati tadvr̥ttam
tathā coktam tathā ca uktam
chidraṃ marma ca vīryaṃ ca vijānāti nijo ripuḥ chidram marma ca vīryam ca vijānāti nijaḥ ripuḥ
dahatyantargataścaiva śuṣkavr̥kṣamivānalaḥ dahati antargataḥ ca eva śuṣkavr̥kṣam iva analaḥ
ato’haṃ bravīmi ataḥ aham bravīmi
ātmapakṣaṃ parityajya parapakṣe ca yo rataḥ ātmapakṣam parityajya parapakṣe ca yaḥ rataḥ
sa parairhanyate mūḍho nīlavarṇasr̥gālavat sa paraiḥ hanyate mūḍhaḥ nīlavarṇasr̥gālavat

Analysis and meaning

asti (there is)

sr̥gālaḥ (jackal)

kascid (some, a)

svecchayā (by own will, at will) – sva + icchā

nagaropānte(in the neighbourhood of the town) – nagara + upānta (upa + anta)

bhraman (wandering) – present participle

nīlasaṃdhānabhāṇḍe (in the vat for preparing indigo dye) – nīla+saṃdhāna (mixing) (saṃ+√dhā)+bhāṇḍa

nipatitaḥ(fallen)

There was a jackal who while wandering at will around the neighborhood of a town, fell into an indigo vat.

paścāt (after that, thereupon)

tataḥ (from there, (from the vat))

utthātum (getting out) – infinitive [Note when the prefix “ud” combines with the root √sthā, the “s” in the beginning of the root is lost. So, ud + sthātum becomes ud + thātum –> utthātum]

asamarthaḥ (unable)

prātaḥ (morning) – adverb, in the morning [Note: the visarga represents “r” not “s”. So prātaḥ =prātar]

ātmānam (self)

mr̥tavat (like dead)

saṃdarśya (having shown) – continuative

sthitaḥ (stood) – past participle

Thereupon, being unable to get out of the vat, in the morning, he feigned death and waited.

atha (then)

nīlībhāṇḍasvāminā (by the owner of the indigo vat)

asau (he)

utthāpya (having lifted) – continuative of causative

dūre (far)

nītvā (having taken) – continuative

parityaktaḥ (cast off)

Then the owner of the indigo-vat, lifted him out, and taking him faraway, threw him away.

tataḥ (then)

asau (he)

vanam (forest)

gatvā (having gone)

ātmānam (himself)

nīlavarṇam (blue colour)

avalokya (having seen)

acintayat (thought) – imperfect

Then, he (the jackal) went to the forest and observing his blue colour thought:

aham (I)

īdānīm (now)

uttamavarṇaḥ (best colour; or highest caste)

I am now of the highest caste (of the best colour)

tad (so)

ātmanaḥ (self) – Note how the word ātmana is used as a reflexive of all three persons. (here it means myself)

kim (what)

utkarṣam (elevation) – ud + √kr̥ṣ

na (not)

sādhayāmi (attain, win) – √sādh

So, why can’t I attain greatness?

iti (thus)

ālocya (having thought)

sr̥gālān (jackals)

āhūya (having called) – √hū

tena (by him)

uktam (said)

Having thought thus, he called together all the jackals and said.

aham (I)

bhagavatyā (by the revered)

vanadevatayā (forest goddess)

svahastena (by her own hand)

āraṇyarājye (in the sovereignty of the forest; as king)

sarvauṣadhirasena (by the juice of all herbs)

abhiṣiktaḥ (anointed) – √sic (pour)

I have been anointed, by being sprinkled with the sap of all herbs,  as the king of the forest by the revered forest goddess by her own hand.

paśyata (see) – imperative

mama (my)

varṇam (colour)

See my colour.

adya (today, now)

ārabhya (starting)

asmadājñayā (by my command)

asmin (in this)

araṇye (forest)

vyavahāraḥ (doing; conduct; business) vi + ava + √hr̥

kāryaḥ (to be done) – gerundive of √kr̥

From today, all the business of the forest will be conducted according to my wishes.

sr̥gālāḥ (jackals)

ca (also)

tam (him)

viśiṣṭavarṇam (of distinguished colour) – bahuvrīhi

avalokya (having seen)

sāṣṭāṅgapātam (with the greatest respect) – adverb ; sa (with) + aṣṭāṅgapāta (falling on eight members – hands, knees, feet, breast and face ; that is with utmost respect)

praṇamya (having paid obeisance)

ūcuḥ (said) – perfect of √vac

The jackals seeing him in such distinguished colour, prostrated before him and said.

yathā (as)

ājñāpayati (orders, commands) – ā + causative of √jñā

devaḥ (lord)

As Your Majesty commands.

tataḥ (thus)

anena (by this)

krameṇa (method, step)

sarveṣu (among all)

araṇyavāsiṣu (forest dwellers)

ādhipatyam (lordship) – from addhipati

tasya (his)

babhūva (became, established) – perfect

Then, using the same technique, he established his lordship over all the forest animals.

tataḥ (then)

tena (by him)

siṃhavyāghrādīn (lions tigers etc.) – siṃha + vyāghra + adi [lion and tiger first; ie. (a list) beginning with lion and tiger; ie. lions, tigers etc.]

uttamaparijanān (exalted retinue)

prāpya (having got)

sr̥gālān (jackals)

avalokya (looking at)

lajjamānena (with shame) – present middle participle

avajñayā (with contempt)

dūrīkr̥tāḥ (kept away; sent off) – dūrī + √kr̥ (See denominatives in Lesson 33)

svajñātayaḥ (own kinsfolk) – sva + jñāti

Then, looking at his exalted retinue of lions and tigers and other great beasts, he felt ashamed of his own kinsfolk, the jackals, and stayed away from them.

tataḥ (then)

viṣaṇṇān (dejected) – vi + √sad

sr̥gālān (jackals)

avalokya (having seen)

vr̥ddhasr̥gālena (by an old jackal)

kena cid (some)

pratijñātam (was affirmed) – prati+√jñā past passive participle

Then, seeing the dejected jackals, a wise old jackal said.

mā (do not)

viṣīdata (grieve) – vi + √sad ; imperative

Do not feel sad.

evam (thus)

ced (if)

anena (by this)

anītijñena (not knowing right conduct) a+nīti+jña

vayam (we)

marmajñāḥ (knowing weak points) – marman (weak point) + jñā

paribhūtāḥ (got the better of; treated with contempt)

tad (then)

yathā (how)

ayaṃ (he)

naśyati (is lost; is destroyed)

tad (then)

mayā (by me)

vidheyam (to be meted out)

If we, who know (his) weak points, are thus treated with contempt by him who does not know the right conduct, then, let me tell you how to destroy him.

yataḥ (when)

amī (these)

vyāghrādayaḥ (tigers etc.)

varṇamātravipralabdhāḥ (by colour alone fooled ) – vi+pra+√labh

sr̥gālam (jackal)

ajñātvā (not knowing) – negated continuative

rājānam (king)

amum (him)

manyante (considers)

tad (so)

yathā (as)

ayam (he)

paricīyate (is found out) – passive of pari + √ci

tathā (thus)

kuruta (do) – imperative

Since, these tigers and other noble beasts, fooled by his colour alone and not knowing him to be a jackal, considers him the king,  do therefore thus that he will be found out (for what he is).

tatra (there)

ca (also)

evam (such)

anuṣṭheyam (is to be done) – gerundive of anu + √sthā

yathā (as)

vadāmi (I say)

Do therefore as I say.

yadā (when)

sarve (all)

saṃdhyāsamaye (at dusk)

tatsaṃnidhāne (his presence)

mahārāvam (great howl) – mahā (for mahant) + rāva

ekadā (at one time, simulatneously)

kariṣyatha (you will do)

When all the animals gather in his presence in the evening, you will all together start howling loudly.

tataḥ (then)

taṃ (that)

śabdam (sound)

ākarṇya (having heard)

svabhāvāt (by nature)

tena (by him)

api (also)

śabdaḥ (sound)

kartavyaḥ (to be done) – gerundive

Then hearing this howl, he also, due to his nature (of being a jackal), will howl loudly.

yataḥ (Like, for)

For (It is said):

yaḥ (which)

svabhāvaḥ (nature)

hi (itself)

yasya (whose)

syāt (is) – optative

tasya (his)

asau (this)

duratikramaḥ (hard to overcome) – dur (difficult)+ atikrama (step over)

śvā (dog) – nominative singular of masculine śvan (dog)

yadi (if)

kriyate  (made) – passive

bhogī (well fed) – nominative singular of masculine adjective bhogin

tad (then, even then)

kim (what)

na (not)

aśnāti (eat, gnaw)

upānaham (shoe) – accusative singular of feminine upānah

It is very difficult to overcome one’s own natural disposition. Even if a dog is well-fed, will he not gnaw at a shoe?

tataḥ (then)

śabdāt (from the voice)

vijñāya (having known)

vyāghreṇa (by a tiger)

hantavyaḥ (to be killed)

Thus, recognizing him from his voice (for a jackal) some tiger will kill him.

tathā (thus)

anuṣṭhite (having done) – locative absolute usage

sati – This “sati” is redundant, since anuṣṭhite itself is a participle [Also, anuṣṭhite is a past participle, while sati is a present participle]

tadvr̥ttam (that happened)

Then that being done, that happened. (That is, when the plan was put into action, what was anticipated happened)

tathā (thus)

ca (also)

uktam (is said)

It is also said.

chidram (weak spot, hole, secret)

marma (weak point)

ca (also)

vīryam (strength)

ca (also)

vijānāti (knows)

nijaḥ (own)

ripuḥ (enemy) – nijo ripuḥ (enemy in one’s camp)

dahati – burns

antargataḥ (hidden within)

ca (also)

eva (itself)

śuṣkavr̥kṣam (dry tree)

iva (like)

analaḥ (fire)

If there is an enemy in one’s own camp, who knows one’s secrets, strength and weak points, he (the enemy) burns (him), like a fire hidden inside a dry tree burns it.

ataḥ (therefore)

aham (I)

bravīmi (say)

Therefore I say.

ātmapakṣam (own side)

parityajya (having left)

parapakṣe (on the other side, enemy’s side)

ca (also)

yaḥ (who)

rataḥ (finds pleasure; lives)

sa (he)

paraiḥ (by the others)

hanyate (is killed)

mūḍhaḥ (fool)

nīlavarṇasr̥gālavat (like the blue coloured jackal)

The fool who deserts his own people and joins up with the enemy, is killed by them, like the blue-coloured jackal.

Here’s the full story

There was a jackal who while wandering at will around the neighborhood of a town, fell into an indigo vat. Thereupon, being unable to get out of the vat, in the morning, he feigned death and waited. Then the owner of the indigo-vat, lifted him out, and taking him faraway, threw him away. Then, he (the jackal) went to the forest and observing his blue colour thought, “I am now of the highest caste (of the best colour). So, why can’t I attain greatness?” Having thought thus, he called together all the jackals and said, “I have been anointed, by being sprinkled with the sap of all herbs, as the king of the forest by the revered forest goddess by her own hand. See my colour. From today, all the business of the forest will be conducted according to my wishes.” The jackals seeing him in such distinguished colour, prostrated before him and said, “As Your Majesty commands.” Then, using the same technique, he established his lordship over all the forest animals. Now, looking at his exalted retinue of lions and tigers and other great beasts, he felt ashamed of his own kinsfolk, the jackals, and stayed away from them. Then, seeing the dejected jackals, a wise old jackal said, “Do not feel sad. If we, who know (his) weak points, are thus treated with contempt by him who does not know the right conduct, then, let me tell you how to destroy him. Since, these tigers and other noble beasts, fooled by his colour alone and not knowing him to be a jackal, considers him the king, do therefore thus (as I say) that he will be found out (for what he is). Do therefore as I say. When all the animals gather in his presence in the evening, you will all together start howling loudly. Then hearing this howl, he also, due to his nature (of being a jackal), will howl loudly. For (it is said):

  • It is very difficult to overcome one’s own natural disposition. Even if a dog is well-fed, will he not gnaw at a shoe?

Thus, recognizing him from his voice (for a jackal) some tiger will kill him.” Then that being done, that happened. (That is, when the plan was put into action, what was anticipated happened). It is also said:

  • If there is an enemy in one’s own camp, who knows one’s secrets, strength and weak points, he (the enemy) burns (him), like a fire hidden inside a dry tree burns it.

Therefore I say:

  • The fool who deserts his own people and joins up with the enemy, is killed by them, like the blue-coloured jackal.

This is the end of Lesson 41.

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