Alphabet

Alphabet (adapted from Bucknell)

alphabet-1

 

Notes on the alphabet:

  1. Have placed “ह    ha” along with the semivowels ( (यण्   yaṇ). This can be questioned.
  2. Have placed “न  na” along with the dental mutes where traditional grammars place this and also in the alveolar slot. Many a time I hear the “न  na” articulated at the alveolar ridge.
  3. Have placed “र  ra” along with the retroflex mutes where traditional grammars place this and also in the alveolar slot. I think the  “र  ra” also belongs here.  In “parā” it should be alveolar,  whereas in “prā” it is retroflex. I feel we need rules for retroflexion of “r” like the “s” and “n”
  4. Have placed the visarga (ḥ ), the jihvāmūlīya (ẖ ) and the upadhmānīya (ḫ )along with the sibilants and the anusvara along with the nasals.
  5. The avagraha अवग्रह, represented by ऽ is used to mark the elision of initial a अ after final e ए or o ओ (eg.  te’bruvan तेऽब्रुवन् for te abruvan ते अब्रुवन् and indro’bravīt इन्द्रोऽब्रवीत् for indraḥ abravīt इन्द्रः अब्रवीत्)

Vowel Gradation (adapted from Bucknell)

vowel-grad

Use of Vowels

matra

Conjunct Consonants

r

cons-1

cons-2

cons-3

 

 

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