Alphabet (adapted from Bucknell)
Notes on the alphabet:
- Have placed “ह ha” along with the semivowels ( (यण् yaṇ). This can be questioned.
- Have placed “न na” along with the dental mutes where traditional grammars place this and also in the alveolar slot. Many a time I hear the “न na” articulated at the alveolar ridge.
- Have placed “र ra” along with the retroflex mutes where traditional grammars place this and also in the alveolar slot. I think the “र ra” also belongs here. In “parā” it should be alveolar, whereas in “prā” it is retroflex. I feel we need rules for retroflexion of “r” like the “s” and “n”
- Have placed the visarga (ḥ ), the jihvāmūlīya (ẖ ) and the upadhmānīya (ḫ )along with the sibilants and the anusvara along with the nasals.
- The avagraha अवग्रह, represented by ऽ is used to mark the elision of initial a अ after final e ए or o ओ (eg. te’bruvan तेऽब्रुवन् for te abruvan ते अब्रुवन् and indro’bravīt इन्द्रोऽब्रवीत् for indraḥ abravīt इन्द्रः अब्रवीत्)
Vowel Gradation (adapted from Bucknell)
Use of Vowels