Declensional paradigms (stems ending in consonants)


  1. Stems Ending in consonants normally take the standard case endings observing the rules of internal sandhi.
  2. The declensional forms show variations between stronger and weaker stems. They have either two forms (strong and weak) or three (strong, middle and weakest). This distinction between strong and weak is made by a difference in the quality of the vowel of the stem (long vs short or occasionally strengthening) or presence vs absence of nasal or sometimes by other peculiar means.
  3. Where there is variation, for masculine and feminine words, the nominative singular, the nominative dual, the nominative plural, accusative singular and the accusative dual show the strong stem; the rest show the weak stem. That is the first five cases going horizontally are strong. The rest are weak.
  4. Among the weak cases, there is either a single form or a two-fold division into the middle (having endings beginning with consonants – instrumental-dative-ablative dual; and instrumental, dative-ablative and locative plural) weakest forms (having endings beginning with a vowels – accusative plural; instrumental, dative, ablative-genitive and locative singular; genitive-locative dual;  and genitive plural).
  5. The above is for masculine and feminine. In neuters, the nominative and accusative cases are identical. The nominative-accusative plural is strong, the others weak. Of the weak, where there is a two-fold division, the nominative-accusative dual belong to the weakest class and the nominative-accusative singular to the middle class. The other cases are like the masculine/feminine above.
  6. Many stems form a special feminine derivative ending in ī  ई , normally adding this ī  ई to the weak form of the masculine.
  7. The masculine and feminine nominative singular adds the standard “s” to the stem. But by rules of word formation, only one consonant is allowed after the final vowel, and this should be one of the permitted finals. Therefore, normally, the added “s” is dropped and the remaining consonant is converted to one of the permitted finals as below:


Consonant-Ending stems – Declensional Paradigms

Below, we have three paradigms for consonant ending stems: Masculine , Feminine and Neuter.




Notes on above:

  1. The masculines and feminines have identical paradigms
  2. The neuters have a different paradigm for the nominative and accusative cases. For other cases it is the same as the masuciles and the feminines.

Derivation of declensional paradigms

The following two tables gives rules for derivation of the entire declensional paradigm given the following cases: Nominative Singular, Nominative Plural, Nominative Dual, ,  Instrumental Singular, Instrumental Dual, Locative Plural and Vocative Singular.



The following are a selection of consonant-ending stems. For each of these are given the Nominative Singular, Nominative Plural, Nominative Dual, ,  Instrumental Singular, Instrumental Dual, Locative Plural and Vocative Singular. From these, using the tables above, you can derive the entire declensional paradigms.