naḷopākhyānam

The story of Nala (naḷopākhyānam  नळोपाख्यानम् ) is found in the Vana Parva of the Mahabharata.

The story is told by the sage Brihadashva (br̥hadaśva  बृहदश्व) to Yudhishthira (yudhiṣṭhira  युधिष्ठिर).

br̥hadaśva  बृहदश्व  uvāca  उवाच  The sage said

Shloka 1

  • āsīdrājā naḷo nāma vīrasenasuto balī
  • upapanno guṇairiṣṭai rūpavānaśvakovidaḥ
  • आसीद्राजा नळो नाम वीरसेनसुतो बली
  • उपपन्नो गुणैरिष्टै रूपवानश्वकोविदः

The above with words separated

  • āsīd rājā naḷo nāma vīrasenasuto balī
  • upapanno guṇair iṣṭai rūpavān aśvakovidaḥ
  • आसीद् राजा नळो नाम वीरसेनसुतो बली
  • उपपन्नो गुणैर् इष्टै रूपवान् अश्वकोविदः

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • āsīt rājā naḷaḥ nāma vīrasenasutaḥ balī
  • upapannaḥ guṇaiḥ iṣṭaiḥ rūpavān aśvakovidaḥ
  • आसीत् राजा नळः नाम वीरसेनसुतः बली
  • उपपन्नः गुणैः इष्टैः रूपवान् अश्वकोविदः

[Note that the visarga at the end of a word is shown as visarga even when without sandhi. It should actually be resolved as “s” or “r”. For example naḷaḥ is naḷas etc. Note that where the visarga is etymologically derived from an “r, I will specifically mention it. Where not mentioned, it is equivalent to an “s”]

The prose order form is

naḷaḥ nāma rājā āsīt, (yaḥ) vīrasenasutaḥ (ca), balī (ca),  iṣṭaiḥ guṇaiḥ upapannaḥ (ca),  rūpavān (ca), aśvakovidaḥ (ca).

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

[As we go into later verses, the analysis becomes more detailed]

(Note: This is only a first level analysis. Each of the words can be analysed further. For example, vīrasenasutaḥ can be analysed further as a tatpurusha compound of virasena and suta; virasena can be firther analysed as a bahuvrihi compound of vira and sena etc. We will do these further analysis as we go into later lessons)

  • naḷaḥ – nominative singular of masculine naḷa; A name
  • nāma – adverb; by name
  • rājā – nominative singular of masculine rājan; king
  • āsīt – Imperfect (laṅ  लङ्) active, 3rd person singular of √as (to be, to exist) – was
  • vīrasenasutaḥ – nominative singular of masculine vīrasenasuta; son of Virasena
  • balī – nominative singular of masculine balin; strong
  • upapannaḥ – nominative singular of masculine upapanna; endowed with
  • iṣṭaiḥ – instrumental plural of masculine adjective iṣṭa; desirable
  • guṇaiḥ – instrumental plural of masculine guṇa; qualities
  • rūpavān – nominative singular of masculine rūpavant; handsome
  • aśvakovidaḥ – nominative singular of masculine aśvakovida; well-skilled in horses

The meaning of the verse is:

There was a King by name Nala, the son of Virasena,  strong, endowed with desirable qualities, handsome and well-skilled in (the science of) horses.

Shloka 2

  • atiṣṭhanmanujendrāṇāṃ mūrdhni devapatiryathā
  • uparyupari sarveṣāmāditya iva tejasā
  • अतिष्ठन्मनुजेन्द्राणां मूर्ध्नि देवपतिर्यथा
  • उपर्युपरि सर्वेषामादित्य इव तेजसा

The above with words separated

  • atiṣṭhan manujendrāṇāṃ mūrdhni devapatir yathā
  • upary upari sarveṣām āditya iva tejasā
  • अतिष्ठन् मनुजेन्द्राणां मूर्ध्नि देवपतिर् यथा
  • उपर्य् उपरि सर्वेषाम् आदित्य इव तेजसा

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • atiṣṭhat manujendrāṇām mūrdhni devapatiḥ yathā  अतिष्ठत् मनुजेन्द्राणाम् मूर्ध्नि देवपतिः यथा
  • upari upari sarveṣām ādityaḥ iva tejasā
  • अतिष्ठत् मनुजेन्द्राणाम् मूर्ध्नि देवपतिः यथा
  • उपरि उपरि सर्वेषाम् आदित्यः इव तेजसा

The prose order form is

(naḷaḥ) manujendrāṇām mūrdhni devapatiḥ yathā sarveṣām upari upari  ādityaḥ iva tejasā atiṣṭhat.

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

  • manujendrāṇām – genitive plural of masculine manujendra (prince); of princes
  • mūrdhni – locative singular of masculine mūrdhan (head); at the head
  • devapatiḥ – nominative singular of masculine devapati; King of the Gods, Indra
  • yathā – particle; like
  • sarveṣām –  genitive plural of masculine pronoun sarva (all); of all
  • upari – adverb; above
  • upari – adverb; above
  • ādityaḥ – nominative singular of masculine āditya; the sun
  • iva – particle; like
  • tejasā – instrumental singular of neuter tejas (splendour); with splendour

The meaning of the verse is:

(He – Nala) stood at the head of the princes like Indra, far above everyone with the splendour of the sun.

Shloka 3

  • brahmaṇyo vedavicchūro niṣadheṣu mahīpatiḥ
  • akṣapriyaḥ satyavādī mahānakṣauhiṇīpatiḥ
  • ब्रह्मण्यो वेदविच्छूरो निषधेषु महीपतिः
  • अक्षप्रियः सत्यवादी महानक्षौहिणीपतिः

The above with words separated

  • brahmaṇyo vedavic chūro niṣadheṣu mahīpatiḥ
  • akṣapriyaḥ satyavādī mahān akṣauhiṇīpatiḥ
  • ब्रह्मण्यो वेदविच् छूरो निषधेषु महीपतिः
  • अक्षप्रियः सत्यवादी महान् अक्षौहिणीपतिः

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • brahmaṇyaḥ vedavit śūraḥ niṣadheṣu mahīpatiḥ
  • akṣapriyaḥ satyavādī mahān akṣauhiṇīpatiḥ
  • ब्रह्मण्यः वेदवित् शूरः निषधेषु महीपतिः
  • अक्षप्रियः सत्यवादी महान् अक्षौहिणीपतिः

The prose order form is

(naḷaḥ) niṣadheṣu mahīpatiḥ brahmaṇyaḥ vedavit śūraḥ akṣapriyaḥ satyavādī mahān akṣauhiṇīpatiḥ

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

  • niṣadheṣu – locative plural of masculine niṣadha – of Nishadha
  • mahīpatiḥ – nominative singular of masculine mahīpati (king);king
  • brahmaṇyaḥ – nominative singular of masculine brahmaṇya (pious); pious
  • vedavit -nominative singular of masculine vedavid (veda-knowing); veda-knower
  • śūraḥ – nominative singular of masculine śūraḥ (man of might); man of might
  • akṣapriyaḥ – nominative singular of masculine akṣapriya (loved by the dice) – lucky at gambling
  • satyavādī – nominative singular of masculine satyavādin (truth speaking) – truthful
  • mahān – nominative singular of masculine mahant (great man) – great
  • akṣauhiṇīpatiḥ – nominative singular of masculine akṣauhiṇīpati (master of an army) – general

The meaning of the verse is:

(He – Nala), the king of Nishadha was pious, a veda-knower, a man of might, lucky at gambling, truthful and a great general.

Shloka 4

  • īpsito naranārīṇāmudāraḥ saṃyatendriyaḥ
  • rakṣitā dhanvināṃ śreṣṭhaḥ sākṣādiva manuḥ svayam
  • ईप्सितो नरनारीणामुदारः संयतेन्द्रियः
  •  रक्षिता धन्विनां श्रेष्ठः साक्षादिव मनुः स्वयम्

The above with words separated

  • īpsito naranārīṇām udāraḥ saṃyatendriyaḥ
  • rakṣitā dhanvināṃ śreṣṭhaḥ sākṣād iva manuḥ svayam
  • ईप्सितो नरनारीणाम् उदारः संयतेन्द्रियः
  • रक्षिता धन्विनां श्रेष्ठः साक्षाद् इव मनुः स्वयम्

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • īpsitaḥ naranārīṇām udāraḥ saṃyatendriyaḥ
  • rakṣitā dhanvinām śreṣṭhaḥ sākṣāt iva manuḥ svayam
  • ईप्सितः नरनारीणाम् उदारः संयतेन्द्रियः
  • रक्षिता धन्विनाम् श्रेष्ठः साक्षात् इव मनुः स्वयम्

The prose order form is

(naḷaḥ) naranārīṇām īpsitaḥ udāraḥ saṃyatendriyaḥ dhanvinām rakṣitā śreṣṭhaḥ sākṣāt manuḥ svayam iva

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

  • naranārīṇām – genitive plural of feminine nara-nārī (man and woman) – of men and women
  • īpsitaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adj. īpsita (desired to be obtained) – desired
    • īpsita is te past passive participle of the desiderative of √āp
  • udāraḥ – nominative singular of masculine adj. udāra (noble) – noble
    • from ud + √r̥
  • saṃyatendriyaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adj.  saṃyatendriya (saṃyata-indriya) (having restrained senses) – self-controlled
    • saṃyata – past passive participle of sam + √yam
  • rakṣitā – nominative singular of masculine of rakṣitr̥ (protector) – protector
    • from  √rakṣ
  • dhanvinām – genitive plural of masculine adj. dhanvin (bowman) – of bowmen
  • śreṣṭhaḥ – nominative singular of masculine superlative adj. śreṣṭha (best, most excellent) -best
  • sākṣāt – adverbially used ablative singular of masculine adj. sa-akṣan (with eyes) – visibly, embodiment
  • iva – indeclinable particle – like
  • manuḥ – nominative singular of masculine manu (Manu) – Manu
    • from  √man
  • svayam – uninflected pronomial word used with all numbers genders and cases – self, own self

The meaning of the verse is:

(He – Nala), was desired of all men and women,  noble, self-controlled, protecting all, best among bowmen, like an embodiment of Manu.

Shloka 5

  • tathaivāsīdvidarbheṣu bhīmo bhīmaparākramaḥ
  • śūraḥ sarvaguṇairyuktaḥ prajākāmaḥ sa cāprajaḥ
  • तथैवासीद्विदर्भेषु भीमो भीमपराक्रमः
  • शूरः सर्वगुणैर्युक्तः प्रजाकामः स चाप्रजः

The above with words separated

  • tathaivāsīd vidarbheṣu bhīmo bhīmaparākramaḥ
  • śūraḥ sarvaguṇair yuktaḥ prajākāmaḥ sa cāprajaḥ
  • तथैवासीद् विदर्भेषु भीमो भीमपराक्रमः
  • शूरः सर्वगुणैर् युक्तः प्रजाकामः स चाप्रजः

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • tathā eva āsīt vidarbheṣu bhīmaḥ bhīmaparākramaḥ
  • śūraḥ sarvaguṇaiḥ yuktaḥ prajākāmaḥ saḥ ca aprajaḥ
  • तथा एव आसीत् विदर्भेषु भीमः भीमपराक्रमः
  •  शूरः सर्वगुणैः युक्तः प्रजाकामः सः च अप्रजः

The prose order form is

tathā eva āsīt vidarbheṣu (rājā) bhīmaḥ bhīmaparākramaḥ śūraḥ sarvaguṇaiḥ yuktaḥ prajākāmaḥ saḥ ca aprajaḥ

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

  • tathā – indeclinable adverb – like
  • eva – indeclinable adverb – so (tathā eva – likewise)
  • āsīt – Imperfect (laṅ  लङ्) active, 3rd person singular of √as (to be, to exist) – there was
  • vidarbheṣu – locative plural of masculine vidarbha (a country) – in vidarbha
    • see usage of plural for country (it can mean king of the Vidarbhans)
  • bhīmaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adj. bhīma (fearful, terrible) – Bhima (a name)
    • from √bhī
  • bhīmaparākramaḥ –  nominative singular of masculine adj. bhīma-parākrama (possessing terrible strength) – very strong
    • bhīma from √bhī
    • parākrama from parā + √kram
  • śūraḥ –  nominative singular of masculine adj. śūra (mighty, bold) – mighty
    • from √śū
  • sarvaguṇaiḥ – standing for sarvaiḥ guṇaiḥ
    • sarvaiḥ – instrumental plural of masculine pronoun sarva (all) – with all
    • guṇaiḥ – instrumental plural of masculine guṇa (quality) – with good qualities
  • yuktaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adj. yukta (possessed of) – having
  • prajākāmaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adj. prajā-kāma (desirous of offspring) – desirous of offspring
    • prajā from pra + √jan or √jā
    • kāma from √kam
  • saḥ – nominative singular of masculine pronoun tad – he
  • ca – indeclinable conjunction (and) – and yet
  • aprajaḥ –  nominative singular of masculine adj. a-praja (childless) – childless
    • from a-prajā

The meaning of the verse is:

Likewise, there was a king in Vidarbha, (by name) Bhima, mighty and strong with all (good) qualities. Though wanting children, he was childless.

Shloka 6

  • sa prajārthe paraṃ yatnamakarotsusamāhitaḥ
  • tamabhyagacchadbrahmarṣirdamano nāma bhārata
  • स प्रजार्थे परं यत्नमकरोत्सुसमाहितः
  • तमभ्यगच्छद्ब्रह्मर्षिर्दमनो नाम भारत

The above with words separated

  • sa prajārthe paraṃ yatnam akarot susamāhitaḥ
  • tam abhyagacchad brahmarṣir damano nāma bhārata
  • स प्रजार्थे परं यत्नम् अकरोत् सुसमाहितः
  • तम् अभ्यगच्छद् ब्रह्मर्षिर् दमनो नाम भारत

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • saḥ prajārthe param yatnam akarot susamāhitaḥ
  • tam abhyagacchat brahmarṣiḥ damanaḥ nāma bhārata
  • सः प्रजार्थे परम् यत्नम् अकरोत् सुसमाहितः
  • तम् अभ्यगच्छत् ब्रह्मर्षिः दमनः नाम भारत

The prose order form is

bhārata, saḥ susamāhitaḥ prajārthe param yatnam akarot; tam damanaḥ nāma  brahmarṣiḥ abhyagacchat

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

  • bhārata – vocative singular nasculine of bhārata – “O Bhaarata”
    • bhārata means descendant of bharata. This is an epithet of Yudhiṣṭhira. Remember, this story is related by the sage Br̥hadaśva to Yudhiṣṭhira
  • saḥ – nominative singular of masculine pronoun tad – “he”
  • susamāhitaḥ – nominative singular of masculine susamāhita (“concentrating on”) – “concentrating on one thing”
    • susamāhita is from su (prefix meaning “well, good”) + sam + ā + hita
    • hita is the past passive participle of √dhā (“put”)
  • prajārthe – locative singular neuter used adverbially of prajā (f) + artha (m) – “for the sake of children”
    • prajā (“offspring”) is from pra + class 1 root √jan (“be born”)
    • artha (“aim”) is from class 6 root √r̥ (“go, send”)
  • param – accusative singular masculine of adj. para (“far, distant, beyond”) – “utmost”
  • yatnam – accusative singular masculine of yatna (“effort”) – “effort”
  • akarot – imperfect active (laṅ  parasmai padam), 3rd person singular of class 8 root√kr̥ (“do, make”) – “did, made”
  • tam – accusative singular of masculine pronoun tad – “him”
  • damanaḥ – nominative singular of masculine damana – name of a sage
    • from class 4 root √dam (“control”)
  • nāma – indeclinable adverb; “by name”
    • accusative singular of neuter noun nāman
  • brahmarṣiḥ – nominative singular of masculine brahmarṣi (“priestly sage”) – “priestly sage”
    • brahmarṣiḥ is brahman (m) + r̥ṣiḥ (m)
  • abhyagacchat –  imperfect active (laṅ  parasmai padam), 3rd person singular of  abhi + class 1 root √gam (“go”) – “went to”

The meaning of the verse is:

O Yudhiṣṭhira, he was making great concentrated efforts to beget children (“he did penance, gave gifts  etc.”). To him (one day) came the priestly sage named Damana.

Shloka 7

  • taṃ sa bhīmaḥ prajākāmastoṣayāmāsa dharmavit
  • mahiṣyā saha rājendra satkāreṇa suvarcasam
  • तं स भीमः प्रजाकामस्तोषयामास धर्मवित्
  •  महिष्या सह राजेन्द्र सत्कारेण सुवर्चसम्

The above with words separated

  • taṃ sa bhīmaḥ prajākāmas toṣayām āsa dharmavit
  • mahiṣyā saha rājendra satkāreṇa suvarcasam
  • तं स भीमः प्रजाकामस् तोषयाम् आस धर्मवित्
  • महिष्या सह राजेन्द्र सत्कारेण सुवर्चसम्

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • tam saḥ bhīmaḥ prajākāmaḥ toṣayām āsa dharmavid
  • mahiṣyā saha rājendra satkāreṇa suvarcasam
  • तम् सः भीमः प्रजाकामः तोषयाम् आस धर्मविद्
  • महिष्या सह राजेन्द्र सत्कारेण सुवर्चसम्

The prose order form is

rājendra, saḥ prajākamaḥ bhīmaḥ dharmavid mahiṣyā saha suvarcasam tam (damanam) satkāreṇa toṣayām āsa

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

[Note: words that have been explained in previous stanzas will not be explained again]

  • rājendra – vocative singular nasculine of rājendra – “O best of kings”
    • rājendra is rāja(n) + indra (“indra among kings”). This is an epithet of Yudhiṣṭhira. Remember, this story is related by the sage Br̥hadaśva to Yudhiṣṭhira
    • rājan is from class 1 root √rāj (“rule”)
  • prajākāmaḥ – nominative singular of masculine adj prajākāmaḥ (“desirous of children”) – “he who desires offspring”
    • prajākāma is prajā (f) + kāma (m)
      • kāma (“desire”) is from root √kam (“love”)
    • prajākāma can mean “desire for offspring” or “(he/she who is) desirous of offspring”. [The type of compounds with the first class of meanings are called tatpuruṣa  तत्पुरुष cpompounds, while the second type are called bahuvrīhi  बहुव्रीहि compounds. We will look at compunds in detail in a later lesson]
  • dharmavid -nominative singular of masculine adj dharmavid (“knowing the law, duty”)
    • dharmavid is from dharma(m) + vid (verbal)
    • dharma is from class 1 root √dhr̥ (“hold”)
    • vid is from class 2 root √vid (“know”)
  • mahiṣyā – instrumental singular feminine of mahiṣī (“chief queen”) – “with his chief queen”
    • from class 1 root √mah (‘be great”)
  • saha – indeclinable adverb (“along with”)
    • used with the instrumental
  • suvarcasam – accusative singular of masculine adj. suvarcas (“glorious”)
    • suvarcasam is su – varcas
      • su – inseparable prefix meaning “good, well”
      • varcas – neuter noun meaning ‘vigor, vitality, glory”
  • satkāreṇa – instrumental singular masculine of satkāra (“good treatment, hospitality”) – “with good hospitality”
  • toṣayām āsa – periphrastic perfect third person singular “made happy, gratified”)
    • periphrastic perfects are a special kind of tense of common use. It is formed prefixing teh accusative of a derivative noun stem ending in ā to the perfect (liṭ ) of an auxiliary verb (here as (“be”)). We will look at this construct in detail in a later lesson.
    • toṣayām – accusative singular of toṣayā (“happy”)
      • toṣayā is from the causative of class 4 root √tuṣ (“be content”)
    • āsa – is perfect third person singular active (liṭ parasmai padam) of class 2 root √as (“be”)

The meaning of the verse is:

O best among kings (Yudhiṣṭhira), Bhima who was desirous of offspring, and knowing the right way, (welcomed him (Damana)) along with his chief queen and made him, the glorious (sage) happy with (his) hospitality.

Shloka 8

  • tasmai prasanno damanaḥ sabhāryāya varaṃ dadau
  • kanyāratnaṃ kumārānśca trīnudārānmahāyaśāḥ
  • तस्मै प्रसन्नो दमनः सभार्याय वरं ददौ
  •  कन्यारत्नं कुमारान्श्च त्रीनुदारान्महायशाः

The above with words separated

  • tasmai prasanno damanaḥ sabhāryāya varaṃ dadau
  • kanyāratnaṃ kumārānś ca trīn udārān mahāyaśāḥ
  • तस्मै प्रसन्नो दमनः सभार्याय वरं ददौ
  •  कन्यारत्नं कुमारान्श् च त्रीन् उदारान् महायशाः

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • tasmai prasannaḥ damanaḥ sabhāryāya varam dadau
  • kanyāratnam kumārān ca trīn udārān mahāyaśāḥ
  • तस्मै प्रसन्नः दमनः सभार्याय वरम् ददौ
  • कन्यारत्नम् कुमारान् च त्रीन् उदारान् महायशाः

The prose order form is

mahāyaśāḥ damanaḥ sabhāryāya tasmai prasannaḥ varam dadau | kanyāratnam ca trīn udārān kumārān

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

[Note: words that have been explained in previous stanzas will not be explained again]

  • mahāyaśāḥ – nominative singular of masculine adj mahāyaśas (“he who has great glory”) – “very famous”
    • mahāyaśas is mahant “great” (adj) + yaśas “fame, glory” (n)
      • note : mahant  in combination as prior member becomes mahā
        • mahant is from class 1 root √mah (“to be great)
    • This is a bahuvrīhi  बहुव्रीहि compound. [We will look at compounds in detail in a later lesson]
  • sabhāryāya – dative singular of masculine adj sabhārya (“having wife with him”) – “to him having his wife with him”
    • sabhārya is a bahuvrīhi  बहुव्रीहि compound.
      • sa (inseparable prefix meaning “with, accompanying”) + bhāryā (f adjective)
      • bhāryā is feminine of gerundive bhārya (“to be maintained, carried”) of class 3 root √bhr̥  (“bear”) – “wife”
  • tasmai -dative singular of masculine pronoun tad (“he”) – “to him”
  • varam – accusative singular of masculine vara (“wish”) – “boon”
    • from class 9 root  √vr̥ (“choose”)
  • dadau – perfect active third person singular [liṭ parasmaipadam  लिट् परस्मैपदम्] of class 3 root √dā (“give”) – “gave”
    • We will learn about perfect tense later
  • kanyāratnam – accusative singular of neuter kanyā (f) “maiden” + ratna (n) – “jewel” (“excellent maiden”)
    • ratna is from class 3 root √rā (“give, bestow”)
  • trīn – accusative plural masculine of numeral tri – three
  • udārān – accusative plural masculine of adj udāra (“exalted, noble”) – “noble”
    • udāra is from ud +  class 6 root √r̥ (“go, send”)
  • kumārān – accusative plural masculine kumāra (“new-born, boy”) -“boys”

The meaning of the verse is:

The famous Damana, happy with him (the king) and his wife, granted him( his) wish (boon) – An excellent girl and three noble boys.

Shloka 9

  • damayantīṃ damaṃ dāntaṃ damanaṃ ca suvarcasam
  • upapannānguṇaiḥ sarvairbhīmānbhīmaparākramān
  • दमयन्तीं दमं दान्तं दमनं च सुवर्चसम्
  • उपपन्नान्गुणैः सर्वैर्भीमान्भीमपराक्रमान्

The above with words separated

  • damayantīṃ damaṃ dāntaṃ damanaṃ ca suvarcasam
  • upapannān guṇaiḥ sarvair bhīmān bhīmaparākramān
  • दमयन्तीं दमं दान्तं दमनं च सुवर्चसम्
  •  उपपन्नान् गुणैः सर्वैर् भीमान् भीमपराक्रमान्

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • damayantīm damam dāntam damanam ca suvarcasam
  • upapannān guṇaiḥ sarvaiḥ bhīmān bhīmaparākramān
  • दमयन्तीम् दमम् दान्तम् दमनम् च सुवर्चसम्
  • उपपन्नान् गुणैः सर्वैः भीमान् भीमपराक्रमान्

The prose order form is

damayantīm, damam, dāntam, damanam ca suvarcasam;   sarvaiḥ guṇaiḥ upapannān bhīmān bhīmaparākramān

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

[Note: words that have been explained in previous stanzas will not be explained again]

  • damayantīm – accusative singular of feminine damayantī (“conquering”)  – a female name
    • damayantī is from class 4 root √dam (“control, conquer”)
  • damam, dāntam, damanam – all three accusative singular of dama (“conquering”), dānta, damana (“conquering”) – all male names
    • all three from class 4 root √dam (“control, conquer”)
    • dānta is the past passive participle

The meaning of the verse is:

[The famous Damana, happy with him (the king) and his wife, granted him( his) wish (boon) – An excellent girl and three noble boys.] (Girl) Damayantī, (and boys) Dama, Dānta, Damana the glorious, endowed with all good qualities and terrible and with great courage.

Shloka 10

  • damayantī tu rūpeṇa tejasā yaśasā śriyā
  • saubhāgyena ca lokeṣu yaśaḥ prāpa sumadhyamā
  • दमयन्ती तु रूपेण तेजसा यशसा श्रिया
  • सौभाग्येन च लोकेषु यशः प्राप सुमध्यमा

The above with words separated

  • same as above

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • same as above

The prose order form is

sumadhyamā damayantī tu rūpeṇa tejasā yaśasā śriyā saubhāgyena ca lokeṣu yaśaḥ prāpa

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

[Note: words that have been explained in previous stanzas will not be explained again]

  • sumadhyamā – nominative singular of feminine adj su+madhyama (m,n) (“fair-waisted”)  – with a fair waist
    • This is a bahuvrīhi compound
    • madhyama (“middle of body, waist”) is from madhya(n) (“middle”)
  • tu – indeclinable particle “truly”
  • rūpeṇa – instrumental singular of neuter rūpa (“form”) – by (her) beauty
  • tejasā –  instrumental singular of neuter tejas (“majesty”) – by (her) majesty
    • tejas is from class 1 root √tij (“be sharp”)
  • yaśasā – instrumental singular of neuter yaśas (“fame, honor”) – by (her) fame
  • śriyā –  instrumental singular of feminine śrī (“beauty”) – by (her) beauty
  • saubhāgyena –  instrumental singular of neuter saubhāgya (“charmingness”) – by (her) comeliness
    • saubhāgya is from adj. su-bhaga (“having a good portion, fortunate”)
      • bhaga (m) “dispenser” is from class 1 root √bhaj (“divide, share”)
  • lokeṣu – locative plural of masculine loka (“world, people”) – among people
  • prāpa – perfect indicative active third person singular (liṭ parasmaipadam  लिट् परस्मैपदम्) of pra + class 5 root √āp (“obtain”) – obtained

The meaning of the verse is:

The fair-waisted Damayanti obtained fame among people by her beauty, majesty, fame, grace, comeliness and charmingness.

Shloka 11

  • atha tāṃ vayasi prāpte dāsīnāṃ samalaṃkr̥tam
  • śataṃ śataṃ sakhīnāṃ paryupāsacchacīmiva
  • अथ तां वयसि प्राप्ते दासीनां समलंकृतम्
  • शतं शतं सखीनां पर्युपासच्छचीमिव

The above with words separated

  • atha tāṃ vayasi prāpte dāsīnāṃ samalaṃkr̥tam
  • śataṃ śataṃ sakhīnāṃ paryupāsac chacīm iva
  • अथ तां वयसि प्राप्ते दासीनां समलंकृतम्
  • शतं शतं सखीनां पर्युपासच् छचीम् इव

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • atha  vayasi prāpte dāsīnām samalaṃkr̥tam
  • śataṃ śataṃ sakhīnāṃ paryupāsat śacīm iva
  • अथ ताम् वयसि प्राप्ते दासीनाम् समलंकृतम्
  • शतं शतं सखीनां पर्युपासत् शचीम् इव

The prose order form is

atha vayasi prāpte dāsīnām samalaṃkr̥tam śataṃ sakhīnāṃ śataṃ (ca)  śacīm iva tām paryupāsat

A first level analysis of the words is as follows:

[Note: words that have been explained in previous stanzas will not be explained again]

  • atha – indeclinable adverb – “then”
  • vayasi – locative singular of neuter vayas (“age”) – (marriageable) age
    • See note below on prāpte
  • prāpte – locative singular of neuter adjective prāpta (“reached”) – “reached”
    • prātpa is pra + past passive participle ātpa of class 5 root √āp (“obtain”)
    • Note: vayasi prāpte is in a construction called the locative absolute ( we will take this up in detail in later lessons) It means “(her) marriageable age having been reached”
  • dāsīnām – genitive plural of feminine  dāsī (“slave, servant)” – “of servants”
    • dāsī is feminine of dāsa from class 4 root √dās or √das (“suffer lack”)
  • samalaṃkr̥tam – nominative singular of neuter adjective samalaṃkr̥ta (“adorned”) – adorned
    • samalaṃkr̥ta is sam + alam + kr̥ta
    • sam is verbal prefix
    • alam is adverb meaning “enough”
    • kr̥ta is past passive passive participle of class 8 root √kr̥ (“do”)
    • alam + kr̥ means “do enough” that is, “adorn”
  • śatam – nominative singular of neuter śata (“hundred”)
    • Note the usage here. In Sanskrit, normally numbers above twenty are constructed as nouns taking the numbered noun as a dependent genitive (or standing in the singular in apposition). So “a hundred adorned servants” is rendered as “of servants an adorned hundred”. This could also have been rendered as “samalaṃkr̥tānām dāsīnām śataṃ” meaning “of adorned servants a hundred” or simply as “śataṃ samalaṃkr̥tāḥ dāsyaḥ” meaning “a hundred adorned servants”. In this last case, the number is put in singular apposition to the plural, qualified noun.
  • sakhīnām – genitive plural of feminine sakhī (“female friend”) – “of friends”
    • sakhī is feminine of sakhi from class 1 root √sac (“accompany”)
  • śatam – same usage as above.
    • “of friends a hundred”
  • śacīm – accusative singular of feminine śacī (“might, help etc.”) – Here the name of the wife of Indra
    • from class 5 root √śak (“be able”)
    • Note Indra is called śacīpati meaning “lord of might”. This pati has been taken as “husband” and the name śacī reverse-generated.
    • Note the sandhi : paryupāsat + śacīm = paryupāsac chacīm
  • iva – indeclinable particle  “like”
  • tām – accusative singular of feminine pronoun tad – “her”
  • paryupāsat – pari + upa + imperfect active third person singular of “class 1” root √ās (“sit”) – “sat around, surrounded”
    • pari and upa are verbal prefixes
    • note that the “set of friends and servants” are taken a singular noun
    • the root √ās is actually a class 2 root and it is used only in the middle voice. So this should have been paryupāsta. (I have seen rendering of this in the present indicative middle also as paryupāste). Here it seems to have been converted to a class 1 root (so it gets the thematic sign “a”) and used in the active voice and becomes paryupāsat.

The meaning of the verse is:

Then she having reached marriageable age, a hundred adorned servants and a hundred friends surrounded her like  (they do) Shachi.

Shloka 12

  • tatra sma rājate bhaimī sarvābharaṇabhūṣitā
  • sakhīmadhye’navadyāṅgī vidyut saudāmanī yathā
  • तत्र स्म राजते भैमी सर्वाभरणभूषिता
  • सखीमध्येऽनवद्याङ्गी विद्युत् सौदामनी यथा

The above with words separated

Same as above

The same with the words without sandhi (uncombined form)

  • tatra sma rājate bhaimī sarvābharaṇabhūṣitā
  • sakhīmadhye anavadyāṅgī vidyut saudāmanī yathā
  • तत्र स्म राजते भैमी सर्वाभरणभूषिता
  • सखीमध्ये अनवद्याङ्गी विद्युत् सौदामनी यथा

The prose order form is

tatra sarvābharaṇabhūṣitā anavadyāṅgī bhaimī sakhīmadhye vidyut saudāmanī yathā rājate sma

An analysis of the words is as follows:

[Note: words that have been explained in previous stanzas will not be explained again]

  • tatra – indeclinable adverb – “there”
  • sarvābharaṇabhūṣitā – nominative singular of feminine adjective sarvābharaṇabhūṣitā (adorned with all her jewels)
    • sarva (pronoun all) + ābharaṇa (n) (ornament) + bhūṣita (adjective) (adorned)
      • A tatpuruṣa compound of sarvābharaṇa and bhūṣita
      • sarvābharaṇa is itself a tatpuruṣa of sarva and ābharaṇa
    • ābharaṇa is from ā + class 3 root √bhr̥ (“bear”)
    • bhūṣita is past passive participle of class 1 root √bhūṣ (“adorn”)
  • anavadyāṅgī – nominative singular of feminine adjective anavadyāṅgī (having a faultless body)
    • an + a + vadya (adjective) (praiseworthy)+ aṅga (n) (limb, body)
    • a bahuvrīhi  compound of anavadya and aṅga meaning (who has a faultless body)
    • anavadya is a doubly negatived vadya meaning “not un-praiseworthy”
      • (technically anavadya is a tatpuruṣa of an and avadya and avadya is a tatpurusa of a and vadya)
      • vadya is gerundive of class 1 root √vad (“speak”)
      • aṅga is from class 1 root √aṅg (“move”)
  • bhaimī  – nominative singular of feminine adjective bhaimī (Bhima’s daughter) – adjective used as noun – Damayantī
  • sakhīmadhye – locative singular of neuter sakhīmadhya – in the midst of friends
    • sakhīmadhya is a tatpuruṣa compound of sakhī (f) (“female friend”) and madhya (n) (“middle”)
  • vidyut – nominative singular of feminine vidyut (“lightning”)
    • vidyut is vi + class 1 root √dyut (“shine”)
      • Note the use of the root itself without a suffix as a word having the meaning of a participle “lightening” and hence lightning.
  • saudāmanī – nominative singular of feminine (adjective) saudāmanī (“lightning”)
    • feminine of adjective saudāmana
      • from sudāman (having good gifts)
        • a bahuvrīhi compound of su (good) and dāman (n) (gift)
          • dāman is from class 3 root √dā (“give”)
  • yathā – indeclinable relative adverb “like”
  • rājate – present middle (laṭ ātmane padam)  third person singular of class 1 root √rāj (“be kingly, shine) – shines
  • sma – indeclinable asserverative particle giving the verb a past sense.
    • rājate sma means shone

The meaning of the verse is:

There, sitting among her friends, adorned with all her jewels, Damayanti, with her faultless body, shone like lightning.

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17 thoughts on “naḷopākhyānam

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